commodity tax

  • 61Fiat currency — The terms fiat currency and fiat money relate to types of currency or money whose usefulness results, not from any intrinsic value or guarantee that it can be converted into gold or another currency, but instead from a government s order (fiat)… …

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  • 62Credit default swap — If the reference bond performs without default, the protection buyer pays quarterly payments to the seller until maturity …

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  • 632000s energy crisis — This article is about the causes and analysis of the relatively high oil prices of the 2000s. For discussion of the effects of the crisis, see Effects of the 2000s energy crisis. For a chronology of oil prices during this time, see 2003 to 2011… …

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  • 64Criticism of advertising — Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs.… …

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  • 65France — /frans, frahns/; Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421; 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… …

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  • 66United Kingdom — a kingdom in NW Europe, consisting of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: formerly comprising Great Britain and Ireland 1801 1922. 58,610,182; 94,242 sq. mi. (244,100 sq. km). Cap.: London. Abbr.: U.K. Official name, United Kingdom of Great… …

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  • 67Surplus value — is a concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy, where its ultimate source is unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist, serving as a basis for capital accumulation.The German equivalent word Mehrwert… …

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  • 68Glencore — International plc Type Public limited company Traded as LSE: GLEN, SEHK:  …

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  • 69Money — For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). Coins and banknotes – the two most common physical forms of money …

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  • 70Economy of the People's Republic of China — Economies of Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are administered separately from the rest of People s Republic of China. Therefore, the information below pertains only to mainland China unless specified otherwise. For the… …

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  • 71USA PATRIOT Act, Title III, Subtitle B — The USA PATRIOT Act was passed by the United States Congress in 2001 as a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. It has ten titles, with the third title ( Title III: International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti Terrorism Act… …

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  • 72Europe, history of — Introduction       history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… …

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  • 73Late-2000s recession — This article is about economic recession during the early twenty first century. For background financial market events dating from 2007, see Late 2000s financial crisis. Late 2000s recession around the world Africa Americas South America United… …

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  • 74Puerto Rico — This article is about the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. For other uses, see Puerto Rico (disambiguation). Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico …

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  • 75New Zealand — New Zealander. /zee leuhnd/ a country in the S Pacific, SE of Australia, consisting of North Island, South Island, and adjacent small islands: a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 3,587,275; 103,416 sq. mi. (267,845 sq. km). Cap.: Wellington …

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  • 76Resource curse — The resource curse (Paradox of Plenty) refers to the paradox that countries and regions with an abundance of natural resources, specifically point source non renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth and worse …

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  • 77Norway — /nawr way/, n. Norwegian, Norge. a kingdom in N Europe, in the W part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. 4,404,456; 124,555 sq. mi. (322,597 sq. km). Cap.: Oslo. * * * Norway Introduction Norway Background: Despite its neutrality, Norway was not able …

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  • 78Supply-side economics — is an arguably heterodox school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax rates …

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  • 79Gold as an investment — Reserves of SDR, forex and gold in 2006 …

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  • 80History of trade of the People's Republic of China — Trade has been a very significant factor of the People s Republic of China s economy. In the twenty five years that followed the founding of the People s Republic of China in 1949, China s trade institutions were built into a partially modern but …

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