Список награждённых Национальной медалью науки США

Список награждённых Национальной медалью науки США
Джошуа Ледерберг (справа) получает Национальную медаль науки из рук Президента США Джорджа Буша-старшего

Список награждённых Национальной медалью науки США включает известных учёных, получивших её за свои выдающиеся достижения. Национальная научная медаль США вручается Президентом США с 1962 года. На 27 сентября 2011 года награждено 468 человек[1]. Медаль не вручалась в некоторые годы: 1985, 1984, 1980, 1978, 1977, 1972 и 1971. Первая медаль была вручена 18 февраля 1963 года Президентом США Джоном Кеннеди Теодору фон Карману[2].

Медаль присуждается в шести номинациях по следующим научным дисциплинам:

Лауреаты

Год Имя Область наук Место научной деятельности на момент вручения награды Оригинальная формулировка (en) Нобелевский лауреат (год) #
1962 Карман, Теодор фон Инженерные науки Калифорнийский технологический институт За лидерство в области науки и техники воздухоплавания, за его эффективное преподавание во многих областях механики, за его неоценимые консультации для вооружённых сил, и за его вклад в развитие международного сотрудничества в области науки и техники.
1963 Альварес, Луис Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли За его вдохновляющее руководство в экспериментальной физике высоких энергий, дальнейшее развитие пузырьковых камер, исследование множества состояний элементарных частиц и его вклад в укрепление национальной обороны.
Нобелевская премия 1968
Буш, Вэнивар Инженерные науки Институт Карнеги За его выдающиеся достижения в электротехнике, компьютерных технологиях, эффективное взаимодействие с физикой и науками о жизни; за его терпение на пути мобилизации науки, инженерного дела и образования на службе народу.
Ниль, Корнелис ван Биологические науки Стэнфордский университет За его фундаментальные исследования в области сравнительной биохимии микроорганизмов, за его исследования базовых механизмов фотосинтеза и за превосходную подготовку множества учёных.
Винер, Норберт Математические и компьютерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт За его удивительно разносторонний, глубоко оригинальный вклад в теоретические и прикладные математические методы в инженерных и биологических науках.
Пирс, Джон Робинсон Инженерные науки Bell Labs За выдающийся вклад в теории коммуникаций, оптики электронных лучей и лампы бегущей волны, и за лидирующие исследования всемирной радиосвязи с использованием искусственных спутников Земли
1964 Адамс, Роджер (англ.)русск. Химия Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн За превосходный вклад в химию как учёного, педагога и творческое лидерство в продвижении конструктивного взаимодействия академических учёных и химиков-технологов.
Амманн, Отмар Герман (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Ammann & Whitney (англ.)русск. За полувековое выдающееся лидерство в проектировании больших мостов, сочетающих в себе красоту и утилитарность со смелыми инженерными концепциями и методами.
Добжанский, Феодосий Григорьевич Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For fundamental studies of the genetic determinants of organ evolution and for penetrating analysis of the genetic and cultural evolution of man
Дрейпер, Чарльз Старк Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For innumerable imaginative engineering achievements which met urgent National needs of instrumentation, control, and guidance in aeronautics and astronautics
Лефшец, Соломон Математические и компьютерные науки Принстонский университет For indomitable leadership in developing mathematics and training mathematicians, for [his] fundamental publications in algebraic geometry and topology, and for stimulating needed research in nonlinear control processes
Миллер, Нил Элгар Психология и общественные науки Йельский университет For sustained and imaginative research on principles of learning and motivation and illuminating behavioral analysis of the effects of direct electrical stimulation of the brain
Морс, Марстон Математические и компьютерные науки Институт перспективных исследований For extraordinary achievement in creating analytic theories in the large, for statesmanship in the world of mathematics, and for distinguished service to his country in war and peace
Ниренберг, Маршалл Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For studies of the genetic control of protein synthesis and, in particular, for deciphering the chemical code relating nucleic acid structures to protein structures Нобелевская премия 1968
Швингер, Джулиан Физические науки Гарвардский университет For profound work on the fundamental problems of quantum field theory, and for many contributions to and lucid expositions of nuclear physics and electrodynamics Нобелевская премия 1965
Юри, Гарольд Клейтон Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For outstanding contributions to our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system and the origin of life on Earth and for pioneering work in the application of isotopes to the determination of the temperatures of ancient oceans Нобелевская премия 1934
Вудворд, Роберт Бёрнс Физические науки Гарвардский университет For an imaginative new approach to the synthesis of complex organic molecules and, especially, for [his] brilliant syntheses of strychnine, reserphine, lysergic acid, and chlorophyll Нобелевская премия 1965
1965 Бардин, Джон Физические науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For his brilliant contributions to the theory of electrical conductivity in solid materials, and especially those which led to the development of a successful theory of superconductivity Нобелевская премия 1956,
Нобелевская премия 1972
Дебай, Петер Йозеф Вильгельм Физические науки Корнелльский университет For sustained contributions of major concepts of modern chemistry and especially for the application of physical methods to the understanding of large molecules and their interaction in solution Нобелевская премия 1936
Драйден, Хью Латимер (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки НАСА For contributions as an engineer, administrator, and civil servant for one-half century to aeronautics and astronautics which have immeasurably supported the preeminence in space
Джонсон, Кларенс Инженерные науки Lockheed Corporation For bold innovations in the use of materials and in the design of aircraft of unusual configurations that pioneered new vistas for the possibility of flight
Ледерман, Леон Макс Физические науки Колумбийский университет For systematic studies of mesons, for his participation in the discovery of two kinds of neutrinos and of parity violation in the decay of mu-mesons Нобелевская премия 1988
Льюис, Уоррен (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For contributions as a scientist, teacher, and inventor who as the leader of modern chemical engineering has made the American chemical industry preeminent in the world
Роус, Фрэнсис Пейтон Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For the original discovery and continued elaboration of the relationship between viruses and tumors, which has come to form the biologic base for so much of our present research effort on cancer Нобелевская премия 1966
Руби, Уильям Уолден (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For showing by profoundly original observations and clear physical reasoning how sand grains and mountains move and from whence the oceans come
Симпсон, Джордж Гейлорд Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For penetrating studies of vertebrate evolution through geologic time, and for scholarly synthesis of a new understanding of organic evolution based upon genetics and paleontology
Ван Слайк, Дональд (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Брукхейвенская национальная лаборатория For classic studies of the chemistry of blood and of amino acid metabolism, and for the quantitative biochemical methodology underlying much of clinical medicine
Зарисский, Оскар Математические и компьютерные науки Гарвардский университет For his creation of a rigorous abstract theory of algebraic geometry, and for his profound influence--especially through many brilliant students--on the algebraic structure of contemporary pure mathematics
1966 Бьеркнес, Якоб (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе By watching and studying maps he discovered the cyclone-making waves of the air and the climate-controlling changes of the sea
Субраманьян Чандрасекар Физические науки Чикагский университет For numerous superb contributions to stellar astronomy, physics, and applied mathematics, and for his guidance and inspiration to his many students and colleagues Нобелевская премия 1983
Эйринг, Генри (англ.)русск. Физические науки Университет Юты For contributions to our understanding of the structure and properties of matter, especially for his creation of absolute rate theory, one of the sharpest tools in the study of rates of chemical reaction
Ниплинг, Эдвард (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Министерство сельского хозяйства США For outstanding original contributions involving unique biological approaches to the control of insect vectors responsible for diseases of humans, domesticated animals, and plants
Липман, Фриц Альберт Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For original discoveries of molecular mechanisms for the transfer and transformation of energy in living cells, and for fundamental contributions to the conceptual structure of modern biochemistry Нобелевская премия 1953
Милнор, Джон Уиллард Математические и компьютерные науки Принстонский университет For clever and ingenious approaches in topology which have solved long outstanding problems and opened new exciting areas in this active branch of mathematics
Роуз, Уильям Камминг (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For the discovery of the essential amino acid threonine and for the subsequent brilliant studies elucidating the qualitative and quantitative amino acid requirements of man and of animals
Шеннон, Клод Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For brilliant contributions to the mathematical theories of communications and information processing and for his early and continuing impact on the development of these disciplines
Ван Флек, Джон Хазбрук Физические науки Гарвардский университет For his many contributions to the development of the theory of molecular structure and for his profound influence, through original contributions and through many brilliant students, on the theory of the magnetic and dielectric properties of materials Нобелевская премия 1977
Райт, Сьюэл Биологические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For original and sustained contributions to the mathematical foundations of the theory of evolution and for basic contributions to experimental and biometrical genetics
Зворыкин, Владимир Козьмич Физические науки RCA For major contributions to the instruments of science, engineering and television, and for his stimulation of the application for engineering to medicine
1967 Бимс, Джесс (англ.)русск. Физические науки Виргинский университет For sustained and ingenious contributions to the scientific development of high-speed centrifuges, a family of devices that are now widely applied in the physical and biological sciences, in medicine, and in engineering scale isotope-separation
Бёрч, Фрэнсис (англ.)русск. Физические науки Гарвардский университет For outstanding contributions to geophysics which have immeasurably increased our understanding of the composition and the processes of the interior of the earth
Брейт, Грегори Физические науки Йельский университет For pioneering contributions to the theoretical understanding of nuclear structure and particle dynamics, for highly significant work in atomic and ionospheric physics, and for the inspiration he has given to several generations of American physicists
Коэн, Пол Джозеф Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет For epoch-making results in mathematical logic which have enlivened and broadened investigations in the foundation of mathematics
Коул, Кеннет Стюарт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For highly original experimental and theoretical investigations of the electrical properties of biological membranes that have led to a deep understanding of the functioning of nerves
Гаммет, Луис Плак Физические науки Колумбийский университет For his joining together physical and organic chemistry, creating new concepts, and replacing intuition by rigor in our growing understanding of chemical reactivity
Харлоу, Гарри Фредерик Биологические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For original and ingenious contributions to comparative and experimental psychology, particularly in the controlled study of learning and motivations, the determinants of animal behavior, and development of affectional behavior
Гейдельбергер, Майкл (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Нью-Йоркский университет For placing the science of immunology on a quantitative chemical basis, and for showing its power to reveal the structure of molecules found in the living organism
Кистяковский, Георгий Богданович Физические науки Гарвардский университет For contributions to physical chemistry, particularly to the understanding of reaction rates, and for statesmanship in the evolution of relationships between science and public affairs
Лэнд, Эдвин (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Polaroid For many discoveries and inventions in the field of polarized light, rapid photography, including quick processing of the final photograph, for the development of a unique theory of color vision, and for contributions to national defense
Сикорский, Игорь Иванович Инженерные науки United Aircraft For pioneering in the development of multi-engined aircraft, both land and sea planes, and for developing the helicopter as a useful and important device of aerial transportation
Стёртевант, Альфред Генри (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For a long and distinguished career in genetics during which he discovered and interpreted a number of important genetic phenomena in Drosophila and other organisms
1968 Баркер, Хорас (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his profound study of the chemical activities of microorganisms, including the unraveling of fatty acid metabolism and the discovery of the active coenzyme form of vitamin B12
Бартлет, Пол Доти (англ.)русск. Физические науки Гарвардский университет For his leadership in advancing our understanding of the mechanisms by which chemical reactions take place, and for his success in training younger teachers and researchers
Броди, Бернард (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For pioneering new qualitative concepts which have revolutionized the development, the study, and the effective use of therapeutic agents in the treatment of human disease
Бронк, Детлев (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For his highly original research in the field of physiology and for his manifold contributions to the advance of science and its institution in the service of society
Экерт, Джон Преспер (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Sperry Rand Corporation (англ.)русск. For pioneering and continuing contributions in creating, developing, and improving the high-speed electronic digital computer
Фридман, Херберт Физические науки Naval Research Laboratory (англ.)русск. For pioneering work in rocket and satellite astronomy and in particular for his contributions to the field of X-ray astronomy
Лаш, Джей Лоуренс (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Университет штата Айова For bringing the science of genetics to bear upon animal breeding, and thus helping to remould the flocks and herds of America and Western Europe
Ньюмарк, Натан Мортимор (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For contributions to the development of powerful and widely used methods for analyzing complex structural components and assemblies under a variety of conditions of loading
Нейман, Ежи Математические и компьютерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For laying the foundations of modern statistics and devising tests and procedure that have become essential parts of the knowledge of every statistician
Онзагер, Ларс Физические науки Йельский университет For a brilliant variety of seminal contributions to the understanding of electrolytes and other chemical systems, especially to the thermodynamics of systems in change Нобелевская премия 1968
Скиннер, Беррес Фредерик Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For basic and imaginative contributions to the study of behavior which have had profound influence upon all of psychology and many related areas
Вигнер, Юджин Физические науки Принстонский университет For his many unique innovations in the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences ranging from quantum chemistry to nuclear theory and from reactor engineering to civil defense Нобелевская премия 1963
1969 Браун, Герберт Чарлз Физические науки Университет Пердью For discovery and exploration of the hydroboration reaction and for developing it into a major and powerful tool in chemical synthesis Нобелевская премия 1979
Феллер, Уильям Математические и компьютерные науки Принстонский университет For original and definitive contributions to pure and applied mathematics, for making probability available to users, and for pioneering work in establishing Mathematical Reviews
Хьюбнер, Роберт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For contributions to the modern understanding of the biology of viruses and their role in the induction of diverse diseases
Килби, Джек Инженерные науки Texas Instruments For original conceptions and valuable contributions in the production and application of integrated circuits Нобелевская премия 2000
Майр, Эрнст Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For notable contributions to systematics, biogeography, and the study of birds, and especially for great work on the evolution of animal populations
Панофский, Вольфганг Физические науки Стэнфордский университет For classic experiments probing the elementary particles of matter and for contributions to advancing the means of experimentation in this challenging field
1970 Брауэр, Ричард (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Гарвардский университет For his work on conjectures of Dickson, Cartan, Maschke, and Artin, his introduction of the Brauer group, and his development of the theory of modular representations
Дикке, Роберт Физические науки Принстонский университет For fashioning radio and light waves into tools of extraordinary accuracy and for decisive studies of cosmology and of the nature of gravitation
Мак-Клинток, Барбара Биологические науки Лаборатория в Колд-Спринг-Харбор For establishing the relations between inherited characters in plants and the detailed shapes of their chromosomes, and for showing that some genes are controlled by other genes within chromosomes Нобелевская премия 1983
Мюллер, Джордж (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки General Dynamics For his many individual contributions to the design of the Apollo system, including the planning and interpretation of a large array of advanced experiments necessary to insure the success of this venture into a new and little known environment
Сэйбин, Альберт Биологические науки Институт Вейцмана For numerous fundamental contributions to the understanding of viruses and viral diseases, culminating in the development of the vaccine which has eliminated poliomyelitis as a major threat to human health
Сэндидж, Аллан Рекс Физические науки Институт Карнеги For bringing the very limits of the universe within the reach of man’s awareness and unraveling the evolution for stars and galaxies--their origins and ages, distances and destinies
Слейтер, Джон Кларк Физические науки Флоридский университет For wide-ranging contributions to the basic theory of atoms, molecules, and matter in the solid form
Уилер, Джон Арчибальд Физические науки Принстонский университет For his basic contributions to our understanding of the nuclei of atoms, exemplified by his theory of nuclear fission, and his own work and stimulus to others on basic questions of gravitational and electromagnetic phenomena
Винштейн, Саул (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе In recognition of his many innovative and perceptive contributions to the study of mechanism in organic chemical reactions
1971 Не присуждалась
1972 Не присуждалась
1973 Арнон, Дэниел (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For fundamental research into the mechanism of green plant utilization of light to produce chemical energy and oxygen and for contributions to our understanding of plant nutrition
Джерасси, Карл (англ.)русск. Физические науки Стэнфордский университет In recognition of his major contributions to the elucidation of the complex chemistry of the steroid hormones and to the application of these compounds to medicinal chemistry and population control by means of oral contraceptives
Эджертон, Харолд Юджин (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his vision and creativity in pioneering the field of stroboscopic photography and for his many inventions of instruments for exploring the great depths of the oceans
Эвинг, Морис (англ.)русск. Физические науки Медицинское отделение университета Техаса (англ.)русск. For extending and improving the methods of geology and geophysics to study the ocean floor and to understand the last remaining unexplored province of the solid earth--that which lies under the sea
Хааген-Смит, Арье Жан Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт За уникальный вклад в открытие химической природы и источника смога и за успешные усилия по его снижению
Гензель, Владимир Павлович (англ.)русск. Физические науки Universal Oil Products (англ.)русск. For his outstanding research in the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons which has greatly enhanced the economic value of our petroleum natural resources
Зейтц, Фредерик Физические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For his pioneering contributions to the foundations of the modern quantum theory of the solid state of matter, and to the understanding of many phenomena and processes that occur in solids
Сазерленд, Эрл Биологические науки Университет Майами For the discovery that epinephrine and hormones of the pituitary gland occasion their diverse regulatory effects by initiating cellular synthesis of cyclic adenylic acid, now recognized as a universal biological second messenger, which opened a new level of understanding of the subtle mechanisms that integrate the chemical life of the cell while offering hope of entirely new approaches to chemotherapy Нобелевская премия 1971
Тьюки, Джон Математические и компьютерные науки Принстонский университет For his studies in mathematical and theoretical statistics, particularly his pioneering work on broad analysis and synthesis problems of complex systems, and for his outstanding contributions to the applications of statistics to the physical, social, and engineering sciences
Уиткомб, Ричард (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки НАСА For his discoveries and inventions in aerodynamics which have provided and will continue to provide substantial improvements in the speed, range and payload of a major portion of high-performance aircraft produced throughout the country
Уилсон, Роберт Ратбун Физические науки Фермилаб For unusual ingenuity in designing experiments to explore the fundamental particles of matter and in designing and constructing the machines to produce the particles, culminating in the world’s most powerful particle accelerator
1974 Бломберген, Николас Физические науки Гарвардский университет For pioneering applications of magnetic resonance to the study of condensed matter and for subsequent scientific investigations and inventions concerning the interaction of amtter with coherent radiation Нобелевская премия 1981
Ченс, Бриттон (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Пенсильванский университет For his contributions to our knowledge of cellular and subcellular physiology made through work on enzyme-substrate complexes, on the kinetics of enzyme action, and on the mechanism and control of membrane-bound electron transfer during cellular respiration
Чаргафф, Эрвин Биологические науки Колумбийский университет For fundamental chemical and biological studies establishing the basis for modern concepts of the mechanisms of protein synthesis and the genetic role of nucleic acids
Флори, Пол Джон Физические науки Стэнфордский университет For his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the modes of formation and structure of polymeric substances Нобелевская премия 1974
Фаулер, Уильям Альфред Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his scientific contributions to nuclear physics and astrophysics, which permitted him to span both disciplines to unravel the nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars Нобелевская премия 1983
Гёдель, Курт Математические и компьютерные науки Институт перспективных исследований For laying the foundation for today’s flourishing study of mathematical logic
Компфнер, Рудольф Инженерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his invention of the traveling-wave tube and for major contributions to communication satellites and to optical communications
Нил, Джеймс Ван Гундиа (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Мичиганский университет For pioneering achievements in creating the science of human genetics and discovering the genetic basis of several human diseases
Полинг, Лайнус Карл Физические науки Стэнфордский университет For the extraordinary scope and power of his imagination, which has led to basic contributions in such diverse fields as structural chemistry and the nature of chemical bonding, molecular biology, immunology, and the nature of genetic diseases Нобелевская премия 1954,
Нобелевская премия 1992
Пек, Ральф Брэзелтон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For his development of the science and art of subsurface engineering, combining the contributions of the sciences of geology and soil mechanics with the practical art of foundation design
Питцер, Кеннет Санборн Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his pioneering application of statistical thermodynamics and spectroscopy to our understanding of the properties of organic and inorganic materials
Шэннон, Джеймс Огастин (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For outstanding leadership in biomedical research following an earlier career in distinguished laboratory investigation of kidney function and antimalarial drugs
Уолман, Эйбел (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For significant improvements in the environment and in the health and prosperity of large populations through the development of better water supply and wastewater systems for cities, regions, and entire nations
1975 Бэкус, Джон Математические и компьютерные науки IBM Almaden Research Center For his pioneering contributions to computer programming languages, especially development of the FORTRAN language which made the modern digital computer directly available to countless scientists and engineers
Бенедикт, Мэнсон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For inspired and ingenious leadership in the development of gaseous diffusion plants for uranium isotope separation, and for his role in creating the discipline of nuclear engineering
Бете, Ханс Альбрехт Физические науки Корнелльский университет For his explanation of the origin of the sun’s heat, his many contributions to our understanding of the atomic nucleus and his counsel in matters involving atomic energy Нобелевская премия 1967
Черн, Шиинг-Шен Математические и компьютерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For developing and extending techniques that led to profound discoveries in geometry and topology
Данциг, Джордж Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет For inventing linear programming and discovering methods that led to wide-scale scientific and technical applications to important problems in logistics, scheduling, and network optimization, and to the use of computers in making efficient use of the mathematical theory
Дэвис, Хэллоуэлл (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Университет Вашингтона в Сент-Луисе For fundamental research on nerve potentials, electroencephalography, and mechanisms of hearing that have formed the basis for advances in neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, audiology, acoustics, occupational health safety, and pediatrics
Дьёрдь, Пауль (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Пенсильванский университет For his discovery of three vitamins and related research that have greatly improved human nutrition
Стерлинг, Браун Хендрикс (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Министерство сельского хозяйства США For the initiation of basic research in the physical and chemical properties of soils and proteins that have profoundly influenced agricultural practices and the production of food plants
Хиршфельдер, Джозеф Оуклэнд (англ.)русск. Физические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his fundamental contribution to atomic and molecular quantum mechanics, the theory of the rates of chemical reactions, and the structure and properties of gases and liquids
Пикеринг, Уильям Хэйуард Инженерные науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his leadership of the exploration of the planets of the solar system and his personal contributions to the theory and practice of soft planetary landings and collection of data from deep space
Саретт, Льюис Хастингс (англ.)русск. Физические науки Merck & Co., Inc. (англ.)русск. For his pioneering contributions to the chemical synthesis of cortisone, steroidal hormones, and other chemotherapeutic agents which have contributed to the benefit of mankind
Терман, Фредерик Эммонс Инженерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his principal role in creating modern electronics and his ability to document his knowledge so that it could be effectively communicated to his many students who now populate the worlds of industry, academia, and public service
Фогель, Орвилл (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Вашингтонский государственный университет (англ.)русск. For outstanding contributions to agronomic research including the development of radically new and improved semidwarf varieties of wheat that now grow on five continents and have made the green revolution a reality
Браун, Вернер фон Инженерные науки НАСА For his work in making the liquid-fuel rocket a practical launch vehicle and for individual contributions to a series of advanced space vehicles, culminating in the Saturn series that made the Apollo program possible
Уилсон, Эдгар Брайт (англ.)русск. Физические науки Гарвардский университет In recognition of his fundamental theoretical and experimental contribution to our understanding of the structure of molecules
Ву Цзяньсюн Физические науки Колумбийский университет For her ingenious experiments that led to new and surprising understanding of the decay of the radioactive nucleus
1976 Коэн, Моррис (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For original research and advancement of knowledge of the physical and mechanical metallurgy of iron and steel, and especially for his work on the martensitic transformation in the hardening of steel
Фридрихс, Курт Отто Математические и компьютерные науки Нью-Йоркский университет For bringing the powers of modern mathematics to bear on problems in physics, fluid dynamics, and elasticity
Голдмарк, Петер Карл (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Goldmark Communications Corp. For contributions to the development of the communication sciences for education, entertainment, culture and human service
Гаудсмит, Сэмюэл Абрахам Физические науки Университет Невады в Рино (англ.)русск. For the major discovery, together with George E. Uhlenbeck, of the electron spin as the source of a new quantum number
Гиймен, Роже Биологические науки Институт биологических исследований Солка (англ.)русск. For demonstrating the presence of a new class of hormones, made in the brain, that regulate the function of the pituitary gland, thereby making possible improved diagnosis and treatment of numerous endocrine disorders Нобелевская премия 1977
Гутовски, Херберт (англ.)русск. Физические науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн In recognition of pioneering studies in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Мюллер, Эрвин Вильхельм (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Университет штата Пенсильвания For his invention of the field-emission microscope, the field-ion microscope, and the atom-probe microscope, which helped to resolve the atomic structures of solids
Портер, Кейт Робертс (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Колорадский университет в Боулдере For fundamental contributions to the elucidation of the fine structure of cells by electron microscopy, which has inaugurated a new era of cell biology integrating structure and function into a comprehensive picture of the life of cells
Рэкер, Эфраим (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Корнелльский университет For major contributions to understanding the subcellular mechanism whereby oxidative and photosynthetic energy is transformed into the specific form of chemical energy used by living cells
Россини, Фредерик Доминик (англ.)русск. Физические науки Университет Райса For contributions to basic reference knowledge in chemical thermodynamics
Суоми, Вернер (англ.)русск. Физические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For providing a new view of the dynamics of our atmosphere, which already has brought substantial benefits to the people of this nation and the world
Таубе, Генри Физические науки Стэнфордский университет In recognition of contributions to the understanding of reactivity and reaction mechanisms in inorganic chemistry Нобелевская премия 1983
Уленбек, Джордж Юджин Физические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For the major discovery, together with Samuel A. Goudsmit, of the electron spin as a source of a new quantum number
Уитни, Хасслер Математические и компьютерные науки Институт перспективных исследований For founding, and bringing to maturity, the discipline of differential topology
Уилсон, Эдвард Осборн Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For his pioneering work on the organization of insect societies and the evolution of social behavior among insects and other animals
1977 Не присуждалась
1978 Не присуждалась
1979 Бюррис, Роберт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For numerous original contributions leading to an understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the process of biological nitrogen fixation
Кросби, Элизабет (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Мичиганский университет For outstanding contributions to comparative and human neuroanatomy and for the synthesis and transmission of knowledge of the entire nervous system of the vertebrate phylum
Дуб, Джозеф Лео (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн In recognition of his work on probability and mathematical statistics, characterized by novel and fruitful ideas of a general character that opened new fields of study which began to be transplanted abroad and now are acclaimed worldwide
Фейнман, Ричард Филлипс Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт In recognition of his essential contributions to the quantum theory of radiation and to his illumination of behavior of constituents of the atom, of the atomic nucleus, and of the subnuclear particles Нобелевская премия 1965
Кнут, Дональд Эрвин Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет In recognition of his essential contributions to the quantum theory of radiation and to his illumination of behavior of constituents of the atom, of the atomic nucleus, and of the subnuclear particles
Корнберг, Артур Биологические науки Стэнфордский университет For accomplishments providing the conceptual and experimental framework for much of our current understanding of the manner in which DNA, the genetic substance, is replicated Нобелевская премия 1959
Лейт, Эмметт (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Мичиганский университет For discoveries and developments in wavefront reconstruction and holography, and his pioneering application of these techniques in engineering and science
Марк, Герман Фрэнсис Физические науки Политехнический институт (англ.)русск. Нью-Йоркского университета For his contributions to polymer chemistry, and his role in the introduction of polymer science as an academic discipline in the United States
Миндлин, Рэймонд Дэвид (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Колумбийский университет For fundamental contributions to applied mechanics, including theory and applications in photoelasticity, package cushioning, piezoelectric oscillators, and ultrahigh frequency vibrations
Нойс, Роберт Инженерные науки Intel For contributions to a variety of semiconductor devices, but especially for the integrated circuit, the cornerstone of modern electronics
Очоа, Северо Биологические науки Нью-Йоркский университет For important contributions to biochemistry and molecular biology, discoveries that contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms for energy generation within a cell, the mechanism whereby proteins are synthesized within a cell and the elucidation of the genetic code Нобелевская премия 1959
Паркер, Эрл Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For contributions profoundly influencing materials engineering through research in flow and fracture, and for his development of new alloys with unusual combinations of strength and toughness
Пёрселл, Эдвард Миллс Физические науки Гарвардский университет For contributions to nuclear magnetic resonance in condensed matter and the measurement of interstellar magnetic fields Нобелевская премия 1952
Рамо, Саймон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки TRW (англ.)русск. For basic contributions to microwave electronics, and imaginative technical leadership in making large electronic systems available to the country for defense and civilian uses
Синфельт, Джон (англ.)русск. Физические науки ESSO Research and Engineering Company For scientific research on the nature of heterogeneous catalysis leading to the development of new catalyst systems for the production of low lead gasoline
Спитцер, Лайман Физические науки Принстонский университет For important contributions to the theory of star formation and evolving stellar systems and plasma physics, including use of fusion as a source of energy
Стадтман, Эрл Рис (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For seminal contributions to understanding of the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria and for elucidation of major mechanisms whereby the rates of metabolic processes are finely matched to the requirements of the living cell
Стеббинс, Джордж Ледьярд Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Дэвисе For his outstanding contributions to the synthesis of an evolutionary theory, particularly as it applies to plants
Вайс, Пауль Альфред (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For outstanding contributions to cell biology and understanding of the development of the nervous system including the basis for surgical repair of injury to peripheral nerves
Вайскопф, Виктор Фредерик Физические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For important contributions to our understanding of nuclear matter and nuclear reactions, and early fundamental contributions to our understanding of elementary particles
1980 Не присуждалась
1981 Хэндлер, Филип (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Национальная академия наук США For his outstanding contributions to biochemical research, resulting in significant contributions to mankind, including research that led to a clearer understanding of pellagra, and for his national leadership in furthering the state of American science
1982 Андерсон, Филип Уоррен Физические науки Bell Labs For his fundamental and comprehensive contributions to the theoretical understanding of condensed matter Нобелевская премия 1977
Бензер, Сеймур (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For elucidating the fine structure of the gene and unifying the classical and molecular concepts of gene structure and function
Бартон, Гленн (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Министерство сельского хозяйства США For outstanding contributions to the biological sciences that have helped to feed the hungry, protect and beautify the environment, and provide recreation for millions
Кон, Милдред (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Пенсильванский университет For pioneering the use of stable isotopic tracers and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the study of the mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis
Коттон, Фрэнк Альберт (англ.)русск. Химия Техасский агротехнический университет (англ.)русск. For contributions of unique range, depth, and importance to inorganic and structural chemistry, especially the discovery and elucidation of multiple metal-metal bonds and the application of group theory to chemical problems
Хайнеманн, Эдвард Генри Инженерные науки General Dynamics For his outstanding contribution as a creator-designer and engineer responsible for the design and production of a series of famous aircraft for the military forces of the Untied States and allied nations
Кац, Дональд (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Мичиганский университет For solving many practical engineering problems by delving into a wide group of sciences and making their synergistic effects evident
Намбу, Ёитиро Физические науки Чикагский университет For seminal contributions to the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions
Стоун, Маршалл Харви (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Массачусетский университет в Амхерсте (англ.)русск. For his original synthesis of analysis, algebra, and topology, the new vital area of functional analysis in modern mathematics
Сторк, Гильберт (англ.)русск. Химия Колумбийский университет For his contributions as one of the world’s most innovative and productive organic synthetic chemists who has discovered a variety of important synthetic reactions which have made possible the synthesis of some of the most complicated and important biologically active compounds
Теллер, Эдвард Физические науки Гуверовский институт For his outstanding contribution to molecular physics, understanding the origin of stellar energy, the theory and application of fusion reaction, the field of nuclear safety, and for his continued leadership in science and technology
Таунс, Чарлз Хард Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For fundamental contributions to the understanding of matter through its interaction with electromagnetic radiations and the application of this knowledge to the service of mankind, most notably in the invention of the maser and laser Нобелевская премия 1982
1983 Бахрак, Говард Биологические науки Министерство сельского хозяйства США For his pioneering research in molecular virology, including identification of the immunizing protein, and his collaborative role in the use of gene splicing to produce the first effective protein vaccine for use in animals or humans
Берг, Пол Биологические науки Стэнфордский университет For fundamental contributions to understanding the mechanisms of gene expression, for the development of recombinant DNA, and for a deep concern for its safe and humane application to medicine Нобелевская премия 1980
Бербидж, Элинор Маргерит Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For leadership in observational astronomy. Her spectroscopic investigations have provided crucial information about the chemical composition of stars and the nature of quasistellar objects
Голдхабер, Морис Физические науки Брукхейвенская национальная лаборатория For his many contributions to all aspects of nuclear physics and more recently particle physics, and for the leadership he has provided the scientific community, as an administrator of science, as a shaper of scientific thought, and as a prolific source of stimulating ideas
Голдстайн, Герман Математические и компьютерные науки Институт перспективных исследований For his fundamental contributions to the development of the digital computer, computer programming and numerical analysis
Хьюлетт, Уильям Реддингтон Инженерные науки Hewlett-Packard For his pioneering accomplishments in the creation and manufacturing of electronics and semi-conductor devices and electronic test instruments
Хофман, Роалд Химия Корнелльский университет His creative applications of theory to organic and inorganic chemistry have brought together the world community of chemists. The magnitude and uniqueness of his contributions to modern chemistry and the scientific process are contributing to an ever-improving understanding of chemistry Нобелевская премия 1981
Ландсберг, Хельмут (англ.)русск. Психология Мэрилендский университет в Колледж-Парке In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge and the applications of climatology, his furtherance of academic achievement and educational programs in the field; and for the exceptional leadership he gave to the climatological sciences and services of the United States government
Лоу, Джордж (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Политехнический институт Ренсселера For contributions of major dimensions and lasting importance to manned spaceflight and in university-industry-government relations
Мунк, Вальтер (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For his unique contributions to the sciences of the geophysics and physical oceanography which have led to a better understanding of the earth’s rotation, the complexities of ocean waves, tidal processes and acoustic propagation
Пиментел, Джордж Клод (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his varied and ingenious use of infrared spectroscopy to study chemical bonding and molecular dynamics, and for his discovery of the first chemically pumped laser, which has had strong scientific impact as well as practical applications
Райнес, Фредерик Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Ирвайне For the experimental discovery of the free neutrino and the elucidation of its properties and interactions and the testing of fundamental conservation laws of physics
Рулофс, Уэнделл (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Корнелльский университет For his fundamental contributions to basic and applied biology in the field of insect pheromones, their chemical composition and blends, their biosysnthesis, how insects perceive and respond to them, and their use in insect pest management
Росси, Бруно Физические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For fundamental contributions to physics and astronomy through his investigations into the nature and origin of cosmic rays and his initiatives that led to the direct detection of the solar wind and to the discovery of extrasolar x-ray sources
Шаррер, Берта (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Медицинский колледж Альберта Эйнштейна (англ.)русск. For her pioneering contributions to establishing the concept of neurosecretion and the demonstration of the central role of neurosecretion and neuropeptides in the integration of animal function and development
Шриффер, Джон Роберт Физические науки Пенсильванский университет In recognition of his insight into cooperative effects in solids and solid surfaces dependent on interacting many-body systems and for his leadership in showing how one couples formal theoretical work with experimental findings to make significant advances in the area of condensed matter physics Нобелевская премия 1972
Зингер, Изадор Математические и компьютерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his inspired revival of differential geometry and its connections to analysis; for his contribution to the discovery and applications of the index theorem for differential operators; and for his leadership in using geometric and topological methods in connection with theoretical physics
Трамп, Джон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his introduction of new machines and methods for the widespread beneficial application of ionizing radiation to medicine, industry and atomic physics
Зэйр, Ричард (англ.)русск. Химия Стэнфордский университет For his seminal contributions to molecular spectroscopy, photochemistry, and chemical reaction dynamics, especially for his incisive theoretical methods and the development of the experimental technique of laser induced fluorescence
1984 Не присуждалась
1985 Не присуждалась
1986 Буксбаум, Соломон (англ.)русск. Физические науки Bell Labs For his wise contributions to national science and technology policy, and for his studies of solid state plasmas
Коэн, Стэнли Биологические науки Университет Вандербильта For his pioneering discovery and characterization of hormone-like growth factors which specifically control the multiplication of certain cells during growth and development Нобелевская премия 1986
Крэйн, Хорас Ричард (англ.)русск. Физические науки Мичиганский университет For the first measurement of the magnetic moment and spin of free electrons and positrons
Фешбах, Герман (англ.)русск. Физические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his distinguished contributions to science as a nationally acclaimed leader in physics education by virtue of his extraordinary interest in teaching and his total commitment to scientific excellence
Грэй, Гарри Баркус (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский технологический институт For his pioneering research in bioinorganic chemistry and inorganic photochemistry, and for his many contributions to chemical education
Хендерсон, Доналд (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For his leading role as chief architect and implementer of the World Health Organization’s successful global eradication of smallpox
Хофштадтер, Роберт Физические науки Стэнфордский университет For his discovery and development of the sodium iodide scintillation counter leading to its application to spectroscopy in virtually all branches of science and technology, including imaging in medicine, and for his contributions to the understanding of the structure of elementary particles and atomic nuclei stemming from the development of the electron scattering method Нобелевская премия 1986
Лакс, Питер Математические и компьютерные науки Нью-Йоркский университет For his outstanding, innovative and profound contributions to the theory of partial differential equations, applied mathematics, numerical analysis and scientific computation
Ли Юаньчжэ Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his world leadership in the development of molecular beam techniques and their application to the study of chemical dynamics. His work has had an enormous impact on many areas of physical chemistry, especially building up a quantitative bridge between the laws of mechanics and complex macroscopic phenomena Нобелевская премия 1986
Липман, Ганс Вольфганг (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his invaluable contributions to the physical sciences and engineering and their impact on the national defense and for his important theoretical and experimental advances in the areas of laminar flow, instability and transition, turbulence, shock-wave boundary layer interaction, transonic flow, aerodynamic noise, magnetofluid dynamics, and the mechanics of liquid helium
Тунь-Янь Линь (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки T. Y. Lin International (англ.)русск. For his work as an engineer, teacher and author whose scientific analyses, technological innovation, and visionary designs have spanned the gulf not only between science and art, but also between technology and society
Марвел, Карл Шипп (англ.)русск. Химия Аризонский университет For leading us into the Polymer Age through his researches on polymers, including synthetic rubber; for helping us into the Space Age through his development of thermally stable polymers; for his many services to the chemical profession; and for educating and inspiring three generations of chemists
Маунткасл, Вернон Биологические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For his fundamental research on how the brain functions in processing and perceiving the information gathered through the somatic sensory system
Оливер, Бернард Инженерные науки НАСА For translating the most profound discoveries of physical and communication science into the electronic, radio, and computer systems which have improved our culture and enriched the lives of all Americans
Паладе, Джордж Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For pioneering discoveries of a host of fundamental, highly organized structures in living cells through studies combining electron microscopy and biochemistry. These contributions stimulated the growth of the field of cell biology, which he continues to inspire through his own research and leadership active collaboration, and the training of new investigators Нобелевская премия 1974
Саймон, Герберт Психология и общественные науки Университет Карнеги — Меллон For his fundamental contributions to our understanding of human problem-solving behavior and decisionmaking, particularly in organizations Нобелевская премия 1978
Стайц, Джоан (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Йельский университет For her major contributions to the basic molecular biology of bacterial and mammalian cells. Her discovery of at least six new components of the cellular machinery is an accomplishment of great distinction in both basic molecular biology and in the clinical treatment of autoimmune disease
Вестхаймер, Франк (англ.)русск. Химия Гарвардский университет For his series of extraordinary, original and penetrating investigations of the mechanisms of organic and enzymic reactions, which have played an unequaled role in the advancement of our knowledge of the ways in which chemical and biochemical processes proceed
Янг Чжэньнин Физические науки Университет штата Нью-Йорк в Стоуни-Брук For his pathbreaking research in theoretical physics, which he has influenced for many years by his profound questions and deep mathematical insight. His ideas have had great impact not only on theoretical developments but also on experiments in elementary particles and condensed matter Нобелевская премия 1957
Зигмунд, Энтони (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Чикагский университет For outstanding contributions to Fourier analysis and its applications to partial differential equations and other branches of analysis, and for his creation and leadership of the strongest school of analytical research in the contemporary mathematical world
1987 Абельсон, Филипп Хауге Физические науки Американская ассоциация содействия развитию науки For his path-breaking contributions in radiochemistry, physics, geophysics, biophysics, and biochemistry and for his vigorous and penetrating counsel on national matters involving science and technology
Анастази, Анна (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Фордхемский университет For her work in the development of the discipline of differential psychology as a behavioral science, which illuminates the way traits are influenced by heredity and environment and the methods by which traits and human characteristics are measured
Бёрд, Роберт Байрон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his profoundly influential books and research on kinetic theory, transport phenomena, the behavior of polymeric fluids, and foreign language study for engineers and scientists
Ботт, Рауль Математические и компьютерные науки Гарвардский университет In recognition of his profound studies in the topology of Lie groups and differential geometry over many decades, and in particular for his «periodicity theorem»
Дебейки, Майкл Эллис Биологические науки Медицинский колледж Бэйлора (англ.)русск. For his pioneering medical innovations throughout his medical career and his unique ability to bring his vast professional knowledge to bear on public policy as a national and international medical statesman
Динер, Теодор Отто Биологические науки Министерство сельского хозяйства США For the discovery of viroids, the smallest known agent of infectious disease. This discovery has opened new avenues of molecular research into some of the most serious diseases afflicting plants, animals, and humans
Игл, Гарри (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Медицинский колледж Альберта Эйнштейна (англ.)русск. For his research in the development of reproducible conditions for the growth in culture of human and animal cells
Эльзассер, Вальтер Мориц (англ.)русск. Физические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For his fundamental and lasting contributions to physics, meteorology, and geophysics in establishing quantum mechanics, atmospheric radiation transfer, planetary magnetism and plate tectonics
Фридман, Майкл Математические и компьютерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For his proof of the Poincare Conjecture in dimension four: a topological four-manifold is homeomorphic to S4[4th power] it it is homotopy equivalent to S4 [4th power], one of the greatest achievements in mathematics in this century
Джонсон, Уильям Саммер (англ.)русск. Химия Стэнфордский университет For his outstanding achievements in organic synthesis, notably in the stereoselective total synthesis of steroids by classical and biomimetic pressures
Корана, Хар Гобинд Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his innovative contributions that significantly contributed to our understanding of gene structure, membrane function and vision and for the work stimulated by his research which has had a major impact on the biological and chemical sciences Нобелевская премия 1968
Лотербур, Пол Физические науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For first proposing and demonstrating the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to form images, and for his continuing contributions to the development of this method for safely producing exquisitely detailed images of the interior of the body for use in medical research and clinical diagnosis Нобелевская премия 2003
Леви-Монтальчини, Рита Биологические науки Итальянский Национальный Совет по исследованиям (итал.)русск. For a major breakthrough in neurobiology by her discovery of the Nerve Growth Factor and its effect on the growth of the sympathetic nervous system which set the stage for worldwide studies of the molecules involved in normal and malignant growth Нобелевская премия 1986
Пэйк, Джордж (англ.)русск. Физические науки Xerox PARC For his commitment to creative excellence in support of institutional purpose. Whether as a research scientist, physics teacher, university administrator, or corporate executive, every institution he has served has been measurably strengthened by his contributions
Сид, Гарри Болтон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his pioneering contributions to the art and science of civil engineering, to the practice of civil engineering at the frontiers of knowledge, to the general understanding of civil engineering methods at all levels, and to the safety and welfare of people throughout the world
Стиглер, Джордж Психология и общественные науки Чикагский университет For his efforts to advance the understanding of industry, its internal organization and relation to government, and for initiating the study of information and markets Нобелевская премия 1982
Стокмайер, Уолтер Хьюго (англ.)русск. Химия Дартмутский колледж For his fundamental contributions to the physical chemistry of high polymers
Тишлер, Макс (англ.)русск. Химия Уэслианский университет For his profound contributions to the Nation’s health and for the impact of his research on the practice of chemistry
Ван Аллен, Джеймс Физические науки Айовский университет For his central role in the exploration of outer space, including the discoveries of the magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn
Вебер, Эрнст (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Политехнический институт (англ.)русск. Нью-Йоркского университета For his distinguished and pioneering contributions to the profession of electrical engineering and allied areas as educator, academic leader, author, researcher, and entrepreneur which have inspired several generations of students and colleagues around the world
1988 Бэйкер, Уильям Оливер (англ.)русск. Химия Bell Labs For pioneering studies of the complex relationships between the molecular structures and physical properties of polymers, for a distinguished record of leadership in the combined disciplines of science and engineering, and for distinguished service to government and education
Блох, Конрад Эмиль Химия Гарвардский университет For his discovery of the principle of suicide inhibitors for enzymes and for an example of that principle. His discovery points the way to the rational design of therapeutic agents Нобелевская премия 1964
Бромли, Дэвид Аллан (англ.)русск. Физические науки Йельский университет For seminal work on nuclear molecules, for development of tandem accelerators and semi-conductor detectors for charged particles, for his contributions to particle-gamma correlation studies, and for his role in founding the field of precision heavy-ion physics
Браун, Майкл Стюарт Биологические науки Юго-западный медицинский центр Техасского университета (англ.)русск. For their historic discovery of the basic mechanisms controlling cholesterol metabolism, opening the way to a new pharmacologic approach to the treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world Нобелевская премия 1985
Чу, Пол (англ.)русск. Физические науки Хьюстонский университет For his wide-ranging contributions in achieving stable superconductivity at −290 degrees F, above the critical temperature of liquid nitrogen (−321 degrees F); and for his participation in the discovery of another superconducting compound, this one stable at a higher temperature (−243 degrees F) and not using rare-earth elements
Коэн, Стэнли Биологические науки Стэнфордский университет For his discovery of methods for propagating and expressing the hereditary information of DNA introduced into living cells, thereby enabling the cloning of individual genes and the study of their structure and function Нобелевская премия 1986
Кори, Элайс Джеймс Химия Гарвардский университет For his strikingly original contributions to organic synthesis, which have brought the science of organic chemistry to a new level of power and precision Нобелевская премия 1990
Дракер, Дэниел Чарльз (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Флоридский университет For pioneering contributions to the development of the theory of plasticity and of limit design, for leadership in engineering education and in engineering societies promoting excellence, and for his influential advisory service to the Nation
Фридман, Милтон Психология и общественные науки Стэнфордский университет For his theoretical contributions, and for application, of the principles of scientific empirical and statistical methods to the field of economics and the social sciences, and to problems critical to the Nation in general Нобелевская премия 1976
Голдштейн, Джозеф Леонард Биологические науки Юго-западный медицинский центр Техасского университета (англ.)русск. For their historic discovery of the basic mechanisms controlling cholesterol metabolism, opening the way to a new pharmacologic approach to the treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world Нобелевская премия 1985
Гомори, Ральф Эдвард (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки IBM For his scientific contributions to the mathematics of discrete optimization and its far-reaching influence on information processing; for bringing to a leading position one of industry’s most significant research establishments; and for his contributions to public and private scientific enterprise
Хоукинс, Уиллис (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Lockheed Corporation For his contributions — through invention, development, management, and advice — to the technical health and competitive status of the United State aeronautical products, sound deterrent weapons systems, and space prowess
Хиллеман, Морис (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Merck & Co., Inc. (англ.)русск. For his brilliant discoveries in basic research and ingenious inventiveness in creating vaccines that are the foundation for control of infectious diseases through immunologic intervention, preventing death and disability in millions of persons worldwide
Хауснер, Джордж (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his profound and decisive influence on the development of earthquake engineering worldwide. His research contributions have guided the development of earthquake engineering and have had an important impact on other major disciplines
Кандель, Эрик Биологические науки Колумбийский университет For discovering the first cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to simple learning and memory Нобелевская премия 2000
Келлер, Джозеф (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his outstanding contribution to the geometrical theory of diffraction. This is a major extension of geometrical optics which succeeds, after many centuries, in adding the physics of diffraction to the simple ray concepts of optics and of other wave motions
Кон, Вальтер Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Санта-Барбаре For his pioneering fundamental contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of solids, including the effective mass approach to defects in semiconductors, the so-called KKR method of band structure, and, most importantly, the density functional approach to the many-electron problem which has led to great advances in the understanding of bulk solids and solid surfaces Нобелевская премия 1998
Рамзей, Норман Фостер Физические науки Гарвардский университет For his seminal investigations in broad areas of atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics, and for his dedicated service to the Nation and to the scientific community Нобелевская премия 1989
Стейнбергер, Джек Физические науки ЦЕРН For his incisive illumination of the properties of subnuclear particles, including exhaustive measurements of strange particles, neutral kaons, and high energy neutrino interactions Нобелевская премия 1988
Ялоу, Розалин Сасмен Биологические науки Госпиталь Бронкса при Министерстве делами ветеранов США For her historic contributions to the discovery and development of radioimmunassay, a technique that employs radioactive isotopes to detect and measure the levels of insulin and hormones in the blood and body tissues Нобелевская премия 1977
1989 Бекман, Арнольд Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his leadership in the development of analytical instrumentation, and for his deep and abiding concern for the vitality of the Nation’s scientific enterprise
Бернстайн, Ричард Барри (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For his development and use of the technique of molecular beams, which have played a significant role in shaping the field of modern chemical dynamics
Калвин, Мелвин Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his pioneering studies in the mechanism of photosynthesis and bioenergetics, and for the application of scientific theory toward the solution of the most fundamental problems of the age--energy, food, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, and the origin of life Нобелевская премия 1961
Дрикеймер, Гарри Джордж (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For his discovery of the pressure tuning of electronic energy levels as a way to obtain new and unique information on the electronic structure of solids
Эзау, Кэтрин (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Санта-Барбаре For her distinguished service to the American community of plant biologists, and for the excellence of her pioneering research, both basic and applied, on plant structure and development, which has spanned more than six decades; for her superlative performance as an educator, in the classroom and through her books; for the encouragement and inspiration she has given to a legion of young, aspiring plant biologists; and for providing a special role model for women in science
Грир, Герберт Инженерные науки CER Corporation For his pioneering scientific contributions and his leadership role in ultra-high-speed electronic stroboscopy, electro-optic innovations, national defense, and aerospace sciences
Хамбургер, Виктор (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Университет Вашингтона в Сент-Луисе For his steadfast work that led to the discovery and understanding of normally occurring neuronal death, nerve growth factor, and competitive relationships in the vertebrate nervous system
Карлин, Самуэль Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his broad and remarkable researches in mathematical analysis, probability theory and mathematical statistics, and in the application of these ideas to mathematical economics, mechanics, and population genetics
Ледер, Филип (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For his innovative studies that have significantly advanced knowledge and provided new directions for research in molecular genetics, immunology and cancer etiology
Ледерберг, Джошуа Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For his work in bacterial genetics and immune cell single type antibody production; for his seminal research in artificial intelligence in biochemistry and medicine; and for his extensive advisory role in government, industry and international organizations that address themselves to the societal role of science Нобелевская премия 1958
Маклейн, Саундерс Математические и компьютерные науки Чикагский университет For revolutionizing the language and content of modern mathematics by his collaboration in the creation and development of the fields of homological algebra and category theory, for outstanding contributions to mathematics education, and for incisive leadership of the mathematical and scientific communities
Маркус, Рудольф Артур Химия Калифорнийский технологический институт For his fundamental, far-reaching, and eminently useful developments of theories of unimolecular reactions and of electron transfers in chemistry and biochemistry Нобелевская премия 1992
Макконнелл, Харден (англ.)русск. Химия Стэнфордский университет For his original and insightful research that has had a profound impact on twentieth-century mathematics, and for his role as an inspiring teacher to generations of American mathematicians
Паркер, Юджин Ньюмен Физические науки Чикагский университет For his fundamental studies of plasmas, magnetic fields, and energetic particles on all astrophysical scales; for his development of the concept of solar and stellar winds; and for his studies on the effects of magnetic fields on the solar atmosphere
Шарп, Роберт (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his research that has illuminated the nature and origin of the forms and formation processes of planetary surfaces and for teaching two generations of scientists and laymen to appreciate them; for his recruitment and leadership of a successful multidisciplinary department of earth and planetary scientists who have agined world recognition
Спенсер, Доналд Клэйтон (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Принстонский университет For his original and insightful research that has had a profound impact on twentieth-century mathematics, and for his role as an inspiring teacher to generations for American mathematicians
Сперри, Роджер Биологические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his work on neurospecificity which showed how the intricate brain networks for behavior are effected through a system of chemical coding of individual cells, which has made fundamental contributions to the understanding of human nature Нобелевская премия 1981
Стоммель, Генри (англ.)русск. Физические науки Океанологический институт в Вудс-Холе (англ.)русск. For his original, penetrating and fundamental contributions to the physics of ocean circulation
Вуд, Гарланд Гофф (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Западный резервный университет Кейза For his pioneering work on the biochemistry of CO2 fixation, for major contributions to medical education, and for leadership in biochemistry at the national and international levels
1990 Бенасерраф, Барух Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For his fundamental contributions to the understanding of the immune system, including much of the work which forms the basis of knowledge of transplantation immunology and regulatory function in the immune response Нобелевская премия 1980
Блоут, Элкан (англ.)русск. Химия Гарвардский университет For his pioneering studies of protein conformation and devotion to the scientific enterprise of this Nation
Бойер, Херберт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Франциско For his contributions to the basic research of the development of recombinant DNA technology. This seminal breakthrough has opened new vistas in experimental biology, and it has led directly to the development of the biotechnology industry
Кэрриер, Джордж Фрэнсис (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Гарвардский университет For his achievement and leadership in the mathematical modeling of significant problems of engineering science and geophysics, and their solution by the application of innovative and powerful analytical techniques
Кормак, Аллан Физические науки Университет Тафтса For his scientific work including the development of computer assisted tomography; and as a scholar and teacher, especially of undergraduates Нобелевская премия 1979
Дресселгауз, Милдред Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For her studies of the electronic properties of metals and semimetals, and for her service to the Nation in establishing a prominent place for women in physics and engineering
Фолкерс, Карл Огаст (англ.)русск. Химия Техасский университет в Остине For his discoveries and leadership in combining basic chemical research and clinical medicine to achieve new treatments of diseases which have enhanced the quality of life and extended survival rates for countless people
Холоньяк, Ник Инженерные науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For his contributions as one of the Nation’s most prolific inventors in the area of semiconductor materials and devices, and for his role as research mentor while working at the forefront of solid-state science and technology
Гурвич, Леонид Психология и общественные науки Миннесотский университет For his pioneering work on the theory of modern decentralized allocation mechanisms
Клини, Стивен Коул Математические и компьютерные науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his leadership in the theory of recursion and effective computability and for developing it into a deep and broad field of mathematical research
Кошланд, Дэниел Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For profoundly influencing the understanding of how proteins function through his induced-fit model of enzyme actrion. His incisive analysis of bacterial chemotaxis has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of memory and adaptation
Льюис, Эдвард Биологические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his demonstration and exploration of the genetic control of the development of body segments by homeotic genes Нобелевская премия 1995
Маккарти, Джон Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his fundamental contributions to computer science and artificial intelligence, including the development of the LISP programming language; the mathematical theory of computation; the concept and development of time-sharing; the application of mathematical logic to computer programs that use commonsense knowledge and reasoning; and the naming and thus the definition of the field of artificial intelligence itself
Макмиллан, Эдвин Маттисон Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his scientific achievements including the identification of the first transuranic element (neptunium) and the invention of the phase stability principle incorporated in the synchrotron Нобелевская премия 1951
Натан, Дэвид (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For his contributions to the understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of thalassemia; for his contributions to the understanding of disorders of red cell permeability; for his contributions to the understanding of the regulation of erythropoiesis; and for his contributions to the raining of a generation of hematologists and oncologists
Паунд, Роберт (англ.)русск. Физические науки Гарвардский университет For his pioneering experiments in nuclear magnetic resonance, including the study of quadrupole interactions and negative spin temperatures, and for the demonstration of the gravitational shift of Gamma-ray photons
Ревелл, Роджер (англ.)русск. Физические науки Гарвардский университет
Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего
For his pioneering work in the areas of carbon dioxide and climate modification, oceanographic exploration presaging plate tectonics, and the biological effects of radiation in the marine environment, and studies of human population growth and global food supplies
Робертс, Джон Домбровски (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский технологический институт For his pioneering studies in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry
Суппес, Патрик Колонель (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Стэнфордский университет For his broad efforts to deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of four major areas: the measurement of subjective probability and utility in uncertain situations; the development and testing of general learning theory; the semantics and syntax of natural language; and the use of interactive computer programs for instruction
Томас, Эдуард Донналл Биологические науки Онкологический исследовательский центр Фреда Хатчинсона (англ.)русск. For his pioneering work in the science and application of transplantation biology to successful bone marrow transplantation in man for the treatment of cancer and related conditions Нобелевская премия 1990
1991 Эйвери, Мэри Эллен (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Гарвардский университет For her discovery of the major cause of respiratory distress syndrome of premature infants and the straegies for treatment and prevention
Бреслоу, Роналд (англ.)русск. Химия Колумбийский университет For his incisive work on enzyme mimics that has built bridges between chemistry and biochemistry, and for his seminal work on novel conjugated molecules and a new class of anticancer agents
Кальдерон, Альберто (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Чикагский университет For his ground-breaking work on singular integral operators leading to their application to important problems in partial differential equations, including his proof of uniqueness in the Cauchy problem, the Atiyah-Singer index theorem and the propagation of singularities of non-linear equations
Элайон, Гертруда Химия Burroughs Wellcome Company For her basic research which enhanced the sciences of chemistry and medicine by elucidating fundamental principles of drug-receptor interactions for nucleic acid antagonists Нобелевская премия 1988
Хейлмейер, Джордж Гарри (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Bellcore (англ.)русск. For his major contributions to the technological competitiveness of the United States and the cause of national defense
Хершбах, Дадли Роберт Химия Гарвардский университет For his seminal contributions to the fundamental understanding of reactions of atoms and molecules, collision by collision Нобелевская премия 1986
Хатчинсон, Джордж Эвелин Биологические науки Йельский университет За его роль в становлении экологии как современной науки и вклад в понимание американскими геохимиками важности живых организмов в круговороте химических элементов. Его работа доказала важность исследований окружающей среды для общества в целом.
Кабат, Элвин Эбрахам (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Колумбийский университет For his seminal contributions in the field of immunology, and for bringing the field to its present prominence
Кейтс, Роберт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Брауновский университет For his fundamental contributions to the understanding of natural and man-made hazards, global environmental change, and the prevalence and persistence of world hunger
Леопольд, Луна (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his contribution to the hydromechanics of rivers; for influencing the direction and content of physical geography, and for outstanding service to the field of water resources
Лурия, Сальвадор Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For a lifetime devoted to applying genetics to viruses and bacteria, and for guiding the development of generations of students who have helped create the modern power of molecular biology Нобелевская премия 1969
Маркс, Пол Биологические науки Мемориальный раковый центр Слоун—Кеттеринг (англ.)русск. For his contribution to hematology in defining the genetic basis for G6PD deficiency and thalassemia, and discovery of an approach to control cancer cell proliferation with new inducers of differentiation
Миллер, Джордж Армитаж Психология и общественные науки Принстонский университет For his innovative leadership in the scientific study of language and cognition, and for his commitment to improved education for literacy
Шавлов, Артур Леонард Физические науки Стэнфордский университет For his role in the conception of the laser and in advancing its applications, especially in laser spectroscopy Нобелевская премия 1981
Сиборг, Гленн Теодор Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his outstanding work as a chemist, scientist and teacher in the field of nuclear chemistry Нобелевская премия 1951
Скуг, Фольке Карл (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his pioneering work on plant hormones, including discovery of cyotkinins (a major class), chemical induction of organ formation and regulation of morphogenesis in plants, and contributions to the development of plant tissue culture as an experimental technique of fundamental importance in biotechnology
Стивер, Хортон Гайфорд (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки For his scientific and engineering leadership in applying new results of scientific research and technological development to the purposes of government, industry, and academe
Стоун, Эдвард Кэрролл (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his outstanding leadership as Project scientist for the Voyager Space Mission and its exploration of the outer Solar System
Вайнберг, Стивен Физические науки Техасский университет в Остине For his contributions to the discovery of the structure of the fundamental forces of nature; the development of the standard model, and the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces Нобелевская премия 1979
Замечник, Пол Чарльз (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his pioneering research of protein biosynthesis, opening the door to biochemical attack, and paving the way for dissection of the genetic code; and for introducing the concept and method of antisense DNA as an approach to viral gene inhibition and chemotherapy
1992 Гибсон, Элеанор (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Корнелльский университет For her conceptual insights in developing a theory of perceptual learning; and for achieving a deeper understanding of perceptual development in children and basic processes in reading
Ньюэлл, Аллен Математические и компьютерные науки Университет Карнеги — Меллон For his seminal contributions to the development of artificial intelligence, the theory of human cognition and the software and hardware of computational systems for complex information processing
Куэйт, Кэлвин (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his contributions to microscopy, particularly the scanning acoustic microscope and the atomic force microscope
Шумейкер, Юджин Физические науки Геологическая служба США For his pioneering research and inspiring leadership in the geological exploration of the solar system; for his entrepreneurial creation and direction of the Branch of Astrogeology of the U.S. Geological Survey; and for his research on earth-approaching asteroids and comets and their potential impact effects
Симмонс, Ховард Энсайн (англ.)русск. Химия DuPont For his fundamental contributions to synthesis, molecular structure, and the theory of organic chemistry, and for his productive management of the premier industrial chemical research program in the United States
Зингер, Мэксайн (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Институт Карнеги For her outstanding scientific accomplishments and her deep concern for the societal responsibility of the scientist
Темин, Хоуард Биологические науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his demonstration of the existence of RNA-directed DNA synthesis, leading to the discovery of proto-oncogenes within eukaryotic cells and the role of such genes in oncogenesis by viruses and other agents, laying the foundation for our knowledge of the replication of HIV, changing our ideas about evolution, and providing vital technology for genetic engineering and human gene therapy Нобелевская премия 1975
Уиннери, Джон Рой (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his research contributions to microwaves, lasers, and quantum electronics; for his excellence as a teacher and author; and for his extensive services to government and professional organizations
1993 Чо, Альфред Йи (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки AT&T For his pioneering work in the development of molecular beam epitaxy, which revolutionized thin film growth, making possible atomically accurate structures for elecronic and proelecronic devices, and for the study of new quantum phenomena
Крам, Дональд Джеймс Химия Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For his pioneering research on the chemical foundations of molecular recognition; the understanding of the molecular basis of biological systems; his shaping of scientific thought and development, and guidance to generations of students Нобелевская премия 1987
Фитч, Вал Логсден Физические науки Принстонский университет For his pioneering experiments at the frontiers of physics, from his measurement of the properties of mu-mesons in nuclei to his co-discovery that nature violates a fundamental spacetime symmetry property; and for his leadership on National science policy Нобелевская премия 1980
Хакерман, Норман (англ.)русск. Химия Фонд Роберта Уэлча (англ.)русск. For his seminal contributions in the field of electrochemistry; for his effective and far-seeing vision in higher education; and for his devoted service to the nation and science
Крускал, Мартин Дэвид (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Ратгерский университет For his influence as a leader in nonlinear science for more than two decades as the principal architect of the theory of soliton solutions of nonlinear equations of evolution
Натанс, Даниел Биологические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For his seminal research in molecular genetics that formed a foundation for contemporary biotechnology Нобелевская премия 1978
Рубин, Вера Физические науки Институт Карнеги For her pioneering research programs in observational cosmology which demonstrated that much of the matter in the universe is dark and for significant contributions to the realization that the universe is more complex and more mysterious than had been imagined
Глюкзон—Уэлш, Саломе (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Медицинский колледж Альберта Эйнштейна (англ.)русск. For her lifetime of work on developmental genetics, providing a large body of knowledge on the study of mammalian genetics
1994 Клаф, Рэй Уильям (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his outstanding contributions in the fields of finite element analysis, structural dynamics, and earthquake engineering which had extraordinary influence in the development of modern engineering
Кок, Джон Математические и компьютерные науки IBM For his contributions to computer science in the design and theory of compilers, and for major advances in the theory and practice of high-performance computer systems
Айснер, Томас Биологические науки Корнелльский университет For his seminal contributions in the fields of insect behavior and chemical ecology, and for his international efforts on biodiversity
Хэммонд, Джордж (англ.)русск. Химия AlliedSignal For his talents as educator, academic administrator and industrial research director, and for creating the field of organic photochemistry, laying the theoretical foundations for research and the development of commercial products from its applications
Мертон, Роберт Кинг Психология и общественные науки Колумбийский университет For founding the sociology of science and for his pioneering contributions to the study of social life, especially the self-fulfilling prophecy and the unintended consequences of social action
Нойфельд, Элизабет (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For her contributions to the understanding of the lysosomal storage diseases, demonstrating the strong linkage between basic and applied scientific investigation
Оверхаузер, Альберт (англ.)русск. Физические науки Университет Пердью For his fundamental contributions to understanding the physics of solids, to theoretical physics, and for the impact of his technological advances
Пресс, Фрэнк (англ.)русск. Физические науки Национальная академия наук США For his contributions to the understanding of the deepest interior of the earth and the mitigation of natural disasters, and his service in academia, as a government official, and at the National Academy of Sciences
1995 Чек, Томас Роберт Химия Колорадский университет в Боулдере For his discoveries regarding RNA catalysis that have added new dimensions to the understanding of the role of RNA in living systems Нобелевская премия 1989
Демельт, Ханс Георг Физические науки Вашингтонский университет For his pioneering achievements in perfecting electromagnetic traps for precision studies of single ions, electrons, and positrons, culminating in the measurement to unprecedented accuracy of the magnetism of the free electron and positron Нобелевская премия 1989
Голдрайх, Петер Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his profound and lasting contributions to planetary sciences and astrophysics, providing fundamental theoretical insights for understanding the rotation of planets, the dynamics of planetary rings, pulsars, astrophysical masers, the spiral arms of galaxies, and the oscillations of the Sun
Хаус, Херманн Антон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his fundamental and seminal research contributions to the field of quantum electronics, noise and ultra-fast optics; and for his service to the engineering profession through teaching
Карле, Изабелла (англ.)русск. Химия Naval Research Laboratory (англ.)русск. For the development and application of a method for determining essentially equal-atom crystal and molecular structures by x-ray analysis, thereby having a profound effect on the practice of organic and biological chemistry
Ниренберг, Луис Математические и компьютерные науки Нью-Йоркский университет For his fundamental contributions to linear and nonlinear partial differential equations, and applications, particularly in geometry and complex analysis, thus having a decisive impact on the development of mathematics and its applications over a period of years
Рич, Александр (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his numerous fundamental contributions to our knowledge of the structure and function of DNA and RNA, the central information carriers in living systems
Шепард, Роджер Психология и общественные науки Стэнфордский университет For his theoretical and experimental work elucidating the human mind’s perception of the physical world and why the human mind has evolved to represent objects as it does; and for giving purpose to the field of cognitive science and demonstrating the value of bringing the insights of many scientific disciplines to bear in scientific problem solving
1996 Брокер, Уоллес Смит (англ.)русск. Физические науки Наземная обсерватория Ламон—Доэрти (англ.)русск. For his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the circulation of the oceans, global carbon cycle, and the record of global climate changes
Дэвидсон, Норман (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский технологический институт For his seminal contributions to understanding the informational properties of DNA and for developing new methods for its study
Флэнаган, Джеймс Лотон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Ратгерский университет For his pioneering contributions to speech communication research, and his leadership in the application to telecommunications technology
Карп, Ричард Мэннинг Математические и компьютерные науки Вашингтонский университет For his pioneering research in theoretical computer science and the development of NP-Completeness, a concept having an important role in the theory and the practice of computation
Патель, Кумар (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For his fundamental contributions to quantum electronics and invention of the carbon dioxide laser, which have had significant impact on industrial, scientific, medical, and defense applications
Патрик, Рут Миртл (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Академия естественных наук университета Дрексел (англ.)русск. For her algal research, particularly the ecology and paleoecology of diatoms, and for elucidating the importance of biodiversity of aquatic life in ascertaining the natural condition of rivers and the effects of pollution
Самуэльсон, Пол Энтони Психология и общественные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For fundamental contributions to economic science, specifically general equilibrium theory and macroeconomics, and to economic education and policy over a period for nearly 60 years Нобелевская премия 1970
Смэйл, Стивен Математические и компьютерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his pioneering contributions to mathematics in the fields of differential topology and dynamical systems, and for applications to physics, biology, economics, and the theory of computation
1997 Эстес, Уильям Кэй (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Гарвардский университет For his fundamental theories of learning, memory, and decision. His pioneering development and testing of mathematical models of psychological processes have set the standard for theoretical progress in behavioral and cognitive science
Хоффман, Дарлин (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For her discovery of primordial plutonium in nature and the symmetric spontaneous fission of heavy nuclei; for pioneering studies of elements 104, 105, and 106, and for her outstanding service to education of students in nuclear chemistry and as director of the Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science of the University of California
Джонстон, Харолд Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his major contributions to the chemical sciences in the areas of kinetics and photochemistry, and for his pivotal role in providing understanding and conservation of the Earth’s atmospheric environment
Розенблют, Маршалл (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For his fundamental contributions to plasma physics, his pioneering work in computational statistical mechanics, his world leadership in the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion, and his wide-ranging technical contributions to national security
Шварцшильд, Мартин Физические науки Принстонский университет For his seminal contributions to the theory of the evolution of stars, and his creative insights into galactic dynamics which form the basis of much of contemporary astrophysics; and his lifetime of dedication to students. His influence on U.S. astronomy in the second half of this Century is unsurpassed
Уотсон, Джеймс Биологические науки Лаборатория в Колд-Спринг-Харбор For five decades of scientific and intellectual leadership in molecular biology, ranging from his co-discovery of the double helical structure of DNA to the launching of the Human Genome Project Нобелевская премия 1962
Вайнберг, Роберт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Институт биомедицинских исследований Уайтхеда (англ.)русск. For his contribution to the identification of cellular oncogenes and their role in cancer, which led to a better understanding of the molecular basis for cancer and its diagnosis and therapy
Уэзерилл, Джордж (англ.)русск. Физические науки Институт Карнеги For his fundamental contributions to understanding measuring geological time scale and understanding how earth-like planets may be created in evolving solar systems through collisional accumulation of smaller planetary bodies
Яу Шинтан Математические и компьютерные науки Гарвардский университет For his fundamental contributions in mathematics and physics. Through his work, the understanding of basic geometric differential equations has been changed and he has expanded their role enormously within mathematics
1998 Эймс, Брюс (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For changing the direction of basic and applied research on mutation, cancer and aging by devising a simple, inexpensive test for environmental and natural mutagens, by identifying causes and effects of oxidative DNA damage, and by translating these findings into intelligible public policy recommendations on diet and cancer risk for the American people
Андерсон, Дон Линн (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his leading contributions to understanding the composition, structure, and dynamics of Earth and Earth-like planets, and his influence on the advancement of Earth sciences over the past three decades nationally and internationally
Баколл, Джон Норрис (англ.)русск. Физические науки Институт перспективных исследований For his fundamental contributions to areas of modern astrophysics ranging from solar neutrino physics to the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy to cosmology, and for his leadership of the astronomical community, especially his tireless advocacy of the Hubble Space Telescope
Кан, Джон Вернер (англ.)русск. Химия Национальный институт стандартов и технологий For his pioneering work on thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transitions and diffusion, on interfacial phenomena, and for his contributions to the understanding of periodic and quasi-periodic structures
Моравец, Кэтлин Синг (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Курантовский институт математических наук For her many pioneering contributions to the theory of partial differential equations and wave propagation, that resulted in applications in aerodynamics, acoustics, and optics. Her research accomplishments are matched by her leadership and inspiration, judgment and vision, and knowledge and generosity to colleagues and collaborators
Роули, Джэнет (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Чикагский университет For revolutionizing cancer research, diagnosis, and treatment through her discovery of chromosomal translocations in cancer and her pioneering work on the relationship of prior treatment to recurring chromosome abnormalities, for epitomizing the bench to bedside philosophy in her application of basic discoveries to clinical medicine, and for her leadership nationally and internationally in the oncology and biomedical communities
Рукенстайн, Илай (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Университет штата Нью-Йорк в Буффало For his pioneering theories of the thermodynamics of microemulsions, hydrodynamics of thin films, interfacial phenomena, nucleation, scaling of transport phenomena, and for imaginative technological and experimental achievements in the areas of catalysis polymer composites, metal-support interactions, and protein separation
Уайтсайдс, Джордж (англ.)русск. Химия Гарвардский университет For innovative and far-ranging research in chemistry, biology, biochemistry and material science, pioneering work of technological interest and his extensive involvement with teaching, government and industry
Уилсон, Уильям Джулиус (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Гарвардский университет For his innovative approach to studying urban poverty, his dedication to the proposition that rigorous social science change will improve his fellow American’s lives, and his advocacy of policies which reflect more accurately what we have learned from research and which therefore take a broader point of view with respect to the interactions of race, class, and location
1999 Балтимор, Дейвид Биологические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For his fundamental discoveries in virology, tumor biology and immunology, notably the discovery of how tumor-causing viruses multiply; for his devotion to building excellence in scientific institutions; and for his statesmanship in fostering communication between scientists and the general public Нобелевская премия 1975
Броудер, Феликс (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Ратгерский университет For his pioneering work in nonlinear functional analysis and its applications to partial differential equations, and for leadership in the scientific community
Койфман, Рональд (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Йельский университет For his fundamental contributions to pure mathematics in the field of harmonic analysis, and for his achievements in the adaptation of that field to the capabilities of the digital computer to produce a family of fast, robust computational tools that have substantially benefited science and technology
Кронин, Джеймс Уотсон Физические науки Чикагский университет For his fundamental contributions to the fields of elementary particle physics and astrophysics and his leadership in creating an international effort to determine the unknown origins of very high-energy cosmic rays Нобелевская премия 1980
Даймонд, Джаред Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For his exceptionally creative scholarship, including seminal research in physiology, ecology, conservation biology, and history; for his outstanding role in communicating science by explaining technical advances in widely understandable terms, and for his overwhelming dedication to science’s role in building a better future
Каданов, Лео Физические науки Чикагский университет For fundamental theoretical research in the areas of statistical, solid state and nonlinear physics and, in particular, for the development of scaling techniques in these fields
Маргулис, Линн Биологические науки Массачусетский университет в Амхерсте (англ.)русск. For her outstanding contributions to understanding of the development, structure, and evolution of living things, for inspiring new research in the biological, climatological, geological and planetary sciences, and for her extraordinary abilities as a teacher and communicator of science to the public
Райс, Стюарт Алан (англ.)русск. Химия Чикагский университет For changing the very nature of modern physical chemistry through his research, teaching, and writing, using imaginative approaches to both experiment and theory that have inspired a new generation of scientists
Росс, Джон (химик) (англ.)русск. Химия Стэнфордский университет For his outstanding contribution and enormous impact in physical chemistry, in particular molecular studies, the kinetics and thermodynamics of nonlinear systems, and new approaches to the determination of complex chemical and biological reaction mechanisms
Соломон, Сьюзан (англ.)русск. Химия Национальное управление океанических и атмосферных исследований For key scientific insights in explaining the cause of the Antarctic Ozone hole and for advancing the understanding of the global ozone layer; for changing the direction of ozone research through her findings; and for exemplary service to worldwide public policy decisions and to the American public
Солоу, Роберт Психология и общественные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his creation of the modern framework for analyzing the effects of investment and technological progress on economic growth, greatly influencing economics and economic policy worldwide Нобелевская премия 1987
Стивенс, Кеннет (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his leadership and pioneering contributions to the theory of acoustics of speech production and perception, development of mathematical methods of analysis and modeling to study the acoustics of speech production, and establishing the contemporary foundations of speech science
2000 Андреасен, Нэнси Кувер Биологические науки Университет штата Айова For her pivotal contributions to the social and behavioral sciences, through the integrative study of mind, brain, and behavior, by joining behavioral science with the technologies of neuroscience and neuroimaging in order to understand mental processes such as memory and creativity, and mental illnesses such as schizophrenia
Бальдешвилер, Джон Химия Калифорнийский технологический институт For his imaginative development of new methods for determining the properties, structures, motions and interactions of molecules and molecular assemblies, the translation of these advances into practical pharmaceutical and instrumentation products for the public benefit, and extensive service to his government and the scientific community
Беккер, Гэри Психология и общественные науки Чикагский университет For his pioneering the economic analysis of racial discrimination, inventing the economics of human resources, producing the major modern innovations in economic demography and in economic criminology, and leading recent developments in how social forces shape individual economic behavior Нобелевская премия 1992
Фунг, Юань-Чжэн (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For his pioneering research and leadership in the fields of bioengineering and aeroelasticity. As author, teacher, editor, and leader, his work and enthusiasm have founded the rigorous study of biomechanics, particularly of the lungs and arteries
Хиршманн, Ральф Франц (англ.)русск. Химия Пенсильванский университет For his seminal contributions to organic and to medicinal chemistry including the synthesis in solution of an enzyme (ribonuclease), his stimulation of peptide research in the Pharmaceutical Industry and for his leadership role in fostering interdisciplinary research in academia and in industry, which led to the discovery of several widely prescribed medications for human and animal health
Лэмб, Уиллис Юджин Физические науки Аризонский университет For his towering contributions to classical and quantum theories of laser radiation and quantum optics, and to the proper interpretation of quantum mechanics Нобелевская премия 1955
Острайкер, Джеремайя Пол (англ.)русск. Физические науки Принстонский университет For his bold astrophysical insights, which have revolutionized concepts of the nature of pulsars, the «ecosystem» of stars and gas in our Galaxy, the sizes and masses of galaxies, the nature and distribution of dark matter and ordinary matter in the Universe, and the formation of galaxies and other cosmological structures
Рэйвен, Питер Хэмилтон (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Ботанический сад Миссури For his contributions to the dynamics of plant systematics and evolution, the introduction of the concept of coevolution, and his major contribution to the international efforts to preserve biodiversity
Томпсон, Джон Григгс Математические и компьютерные науки Флоридский университет For his profound and lasting contributions to the mathematical sciences, providing fundamental advances for the study of finite simple groups, the inverse Galois problem and connections between group theory and number theory
Уленбек, Кэрен (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Техасский университет в Остине For her many pioneering contributions to global geometry that resulted in advances in mathematical physics and the theory of partial differential equations. Her research accomplishments are matched by her leadership and passionate involvement in mathematics training and education
Уайт, Гилберт Фоулер (англ.)русск. Физические науки Колорадский университет в Боулдере For outstanding leadership and scientific contributions to geography and other Earth and environmental sciences, and for helping shape cooperative efforts to assess the Nation’s floodplain, water use, and natural disaster policies for more than five decades
Вёзе, Карл Биологические науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For his brilliant and original insights, through molecular studies of RNA sequences, to explore the history of life on Earth. His vision has revolutionized our view of life’s evolution and diversity
2001 Айала, Франсиско Хосе Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Ирвайне For his theoretical and experimental discoveries on the origin of species, genetic diversity, and population dynamics that led to a new understanding of biological evolution, and his distinguished contributions to education, the promotion of public understanding of science, and the philosophy and ethics of the scientific enterprise
Акривос, Андреас (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Сити-колледж For his pioneering research in fluid mechanics, leadership in the fluid mechanics and chemical engineering communities, editorial initiative with the Physics of Fluids, and mentoring several generations of engineering scientists
Бас, Джордж (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Техасский агротехнический университет (англ.)русск. For pioneering ocean technology and creating a new branch of scholarship, nautical archaeology, thereby providing new knowledge of the histories of economics, technology, and literacy
Капекки, Марио Биологические науки Университет Юты For his groundbreaking research which has revolutionized biomedical research and provided a powerful tool for understanding disease mechanisms and gene functions Нобелевская премия 2007
Коэн, Марвин (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his creation and application of a quantum theory for explaining and predicting properties of real materials, which formed the basis for semiconductor physics and nanoscience
Дэвидсон, Эрнест (англ.)русск. Химия Индианский университет For his innovative leadership and numerous conceptual and algorithmic developments that led to the field of computational quantum chemistry and made possible the accurate modeling of chemical reactions and the response of molecules to radiation
Дэвис, Раймонд Физические науки Брукхейвенская национальная лаборатория For creating the first experiment to measure solar neutrino flux, continuing research on tracking the time dependence of the solar neutrino flux, and creating the new field of neutrino astronomy Нобелевская премия 2002
Грэйбиел, Энн Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For her pioneering contributions to the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the brain, including the structure, chemistry, and function of the pathways subserving thought and movement
Килинг, Чарльз Дэвид (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For his pioneering and fundamental research on atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide, the basis for understanding global carbon cycle and global warming
Ликенс, Джин (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Институт исследований экосистем (англ.)русск. For his discovery of acid rain in North America and his sustained leadership in developing the fields of ecology and ecosystem science
Маккьюзик, Виктор (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For basic and applied contributions to the founding of medical genetics and the human genome project
Рао, Кальямпуди Радхакришна Математические и компьютерные науки Университет штата Пенсильвания For his pioneering contributions to the foundations of statistical theory and multivariate statistical methodology, and their applications, enriching the physical, biological, mathematical, economic and engineering sciences
Соморяи, Габор (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For molecular studies of surfaces through the use of single crystals and the development of new techniques that served as foundations of new surface technologies including heterogeneous catalysis
Стайн, Илайас Менахем (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Принстонский университет For his contributions to mathematical analysis, especially harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, several complex variables, and representation theory
Вармус, Харолд Биологические науки Мемориальный раковый центр Слоун—Кеттеринг (англ.)русск. For his co-discovery of the cellular origins of retroviral oncogenes, which heralded a new era in the control of human cancer and for reinvigorating the nation’s medical research enterprise Нобелевская премия 1989
2002 Беранек, Лео (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки BBN Technologies (англ.)русск. For his leadership, dedication, and contributions to the art and science of acoustics; for co-founding one of the world’s foremost acoustical research and consulting firms; and for sustained contributions to scientific societies and civic organizations
Браумэн, Джон (нем.)русск. Химия Стэнфордский университет For his seminal contributions in chemistry, giving new insight into the properties of ions and the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions, and for his landmark achievement in clarifying the key role of solvent in determining acid-base chemistry
Дарнелл, Джеймс (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For his seminal scientific discoveries related to gene expression in animal cells, including pathways of RNA processing and signal transduction from the cell surface to genes in the nucleus, and for his contributions as a scientific educator
Гарвин, Ричард (англ.)русск. Физические науки Совет по международным отношениям In recognition of his research and discoveries in physics and related fields, and of his longstanding service to the Nation by providing valuable scientific advice on important questions of national security over a half a century. Also affiliated with IBM Corp.
Глимм, Джеймс (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Университет штата Нью-Йорк в Стоуни-Брук For his original approaches and creative contributions to an array of disciplines in mathematical analysis and mathematical physics, which are fundamental to the theory of operator algebras, shock-wave theory, advanced quantum field theory, quantum statistical mechanics, applied mathematics, and scientific computation Also affiliated with Brookhaven National Laboratory
Морган, Уильям Джейсон (англ.)русск. Физические науки Принстонский университет For his development of the theories of plate tectonics and of deep mantle plumes, which revolutionized our understanding of the geological forces that control the earth’s crust and deep interior and consequently influence the evolution of the earth’s life and climate
Уиткин, Эвелин (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Ратгерский университет For her insightful and pioneering investigations on the genetics of DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair that have increased our understanding of processes as varied as evolution and the development of cancer
Виттен, Эдвард Физические науки Институт перспективных исследований For his leadership in a broad range of topics in mathematics and theoretical physics, including attempts to understand the fundamental forces of nature through string theory, and his inspired use of insights from physics to unify apparently disparate areas of mathematics
2003 Бишоп, Джон Майкл Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Франциско For his discovery that the genes that determine the cancer-causing potential of certain viruses are counterparts of and derived from essential cellular genes, and that derangement of these cellular genes can lead to growth aberrations and cancer Нобелевская премия 1989
Дарлимпл, Брент (англ.)русск. Физические науки Университет штата Орегон (англ.)русск. For his pioneering work in determining the geomagnetic polarity reversal timescale; a discovery that led to the theory of plate tectonics
Бур, Карл Рейнхольд де (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his fundamental contributions to mathematics that strongly assisted numerical computation in science and engineering
Джаккони, Риккардо Физические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For his pioneering research in X-ray astronomy and for his leadership of major astronomy facilities Нобелевская премия 2002
Люче, Данкан Психология и общественные науки Калифорнийский университет в Ирвайне For his half century of advances in economics, psychology, and sociology based on mathematical modeling of behavior
Праусниц, Джон (польск.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Беркли For his development of engineering-oriented molecular thermodynamics, which provides a scientific method for the design, construction, and operation of chemical manufacturing plants toward economic efficiency, safety, minimum energy consumption, and environmental protection
Снайдер, Соломон (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Университет Джонса Хопкинса For his major contributions to the understanding of neurotransmitters, their receptors in the nervous system, mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs, and pathways of signal transduction in the brain
Янофски, Чарльз (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Стэнфордский университет For his fundamental contributions to our understanding of how genetic messages are read and translated into proteins, including important mechanisms of RNA-based gene regulation
2004 Эрроу, Кеннет Джозеф Психология и общественные науки Стэнфордский университет For his contribution to the field of economics exemplified by his work on general equilibrium theory, social welfare theory, endogenous growth theory, health economics, and information economics Нобелевская премия 1972
Борлоуг, Норман Эрнест Биологические науки Техасский агротехнический университет (англ.)русск. For his success in breeding semi-dwarf, disease-resistant high-yield wheat and instructing farmers in its cultivation under harsh growing conditions, thus providing a new high-quality food source for millions of people around the world Нобелевская премия 1970
Клэйтон, Роберт Физические науки Чикагский университет For his contributions to geochemistry and cosmochemistry that provided major insights into the evolution of the solar system through his discovery of non-mass-dependent isotope shifts in meteorites
Лайтфут, Эдвин (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Висконсинский университет в Мадисоне For his innovative research and leadership in transport phenomena focusing on biochemical and biomedical engineering with application to blood oxygenation, bioseparation techniques, and diabetic responses
Липпард, Стивен (англ.)русск. Химия Массачусетский технологический институт For pioneering research in bioinorganic chemistry, which enriched our understanding of how metal compounds interact with DNA, provided important synthetic models for the active sites of metalloproteins, and elucidated key structural and mechanistic features of methane monooxygenase
Шарп, Филлип Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his contributions to understanding the biochemical pathway of RNA interference phenomena and for his use of RNA interference techniques to perform genetic analyses in mammalian cells Нобелевская премия 1993
Старзл, Томас Биологические науки Питтсбургский университет For his pioneering work in liver transplantation and his discoveries in immunosuppressive medication that advanced the field of organ transplantation
Салливан, Деннис Математические и компьютерные науки Университет города Нью-Йорк (англ.)русск. For his achievements in mathematics, including solving some of the most difficult problems and creating entirely new areas of activity, and for uncovering striking, unexpected connections between seemingly unrelated fields
2005 Ахенбах, Ян (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Северо-Западный университет For his seminal contributions to engineering research and education in the area of wave propagation in solids and for pioneering the field of quantitative non-destructive evaluation
Алфер, Ральф Эшер (англ.)русск. Физические науки Обсерватория Дадли For his unprecedented work in the areas of nucleosynthesis, for the prediction that universe expansion leaves behind background radiation, and for providing the model for the Big Bang theory
Боуэр, Гордон (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Стэнфордский университет For his unparalleled contributions to cognitive and mathematical psychology, for his lucid analyses of memory and learning, and for his important service to psychology and to American science
Эфрон, Брэдли Математические и компьютерные науки Стэнфордский университет For his contributions to theoretical and applied statistics, especially the bootstrap sampling technique; for his extraordinary geometric insight into nonlinear statistical problems; and for applications in medicine, physics, and astronomy
Фаучи, Энтони (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For pioneering the understanding of the mechanisms whereby the human immune system is regulated, and for his work on dissecting the mechanisms of pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that has served as the underpinning for the current strategies for the treatment of HIV disease
Маркс, Тобин Джэй (англ.)русск. Химия Северо-Западный университет For his pioneering research in the areas of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, organo-f-element chemistry, new electronic and photonic materials, and diverse areas of coordination and solid state chemistry
Томпсон, Лонни (англ.)русск. Физические науки Университет штата Огайо For his pioneering research in paleoclimatology analyzing isotopic and chemical fingerprints found in tropical ice cores from the world’s highest mountain glaciers and for his courage in collecting these disappearing climate archives that have transformed our understanding of the natural and anthropogenic factors influencing climate variability on our planet, past and present
Визель, Торстен Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For providing key insights into the operation of the visual system and for the discovery of the manner in which neural connections in the brain are made during development and how they are maintained Нобелевская премия 1981
2006 Бас, Хаймэн (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Мичиганский университет For his fundamental contributions to pure mathematics, especially in the creation of algebraic K-theory, his profound influence on mathematics education, and his service to the mathematics research and education communities
Карутерс, Марвин Химия Колорадский университет в Боулдере For his work in developing robust methods for the chemical synthesis of DNA, which has enabled genetic engineering of new biopharmaceuticals, forensic "DNA fingerprinting, " and the human genome project
Колуэлл, Рита (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Мэрилендский университет в Колледж-Парке For her in-depth research that has contributed to a greater understanding of the ecology, physiology, and evolution of marine microbes, most notably Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, and which has elucidated critical links between environmental and human health
Дерван, Питер (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский технологический институт For his fundamental research contributions at the interface of organic chemistry and biology, and for his influence in education and industrial innovation
Фёдорова, Нина Всеволодовна Биологические науки Университет штата Пенсильвания For her pioneering work on plant molecular biology, and for her being the first to clone and characterize maize transposons. She has contributed to education and public policy pertaining to recombinant DNA and genetic modification of plants
Клеппнер, Дэниел (англ.)русск. Физические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his pioneering scientific studies of the interaction of atoms and light including Rydberg atoms, cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum chaos; for developing techniques that opened the way to Bose Einstein Condensation in a gas; and for lucid explanations of physics to nonspecialists and exemplary service to the scientific community
Лэнгер, Роберт (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Массачусетский технологический институт For his revolutionary discoveries in the areas of polymeric controlled release systems and tissue engineering and synthesis of new materials that have led to new medical treatments that have profoundly affected the well being of mankind
Страйер, Люберт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Стэнфордский университет For his pioneering application of fluorescence spectroscopy, and particularly fluorescence resonance energy transfer, to the analysis of biological macromolecules; he elucidated the biochemical basis of signal amplification in vision and pioneered the development of high density micro-arrays for genetic analysis («gene chips»). His influential biochemistry textbook has influenced and inspired millions of students
2007 Айзенберг-Селов, Фэй (англ.)русск. Физические науки Пенсильванский университет For her pioneering contributions in nuclear physics that have advanced research into many applications, including energy generation from fusion, dating of artifacts, and nuclear medicine; her passion for teaching; and her outstanding service to her profession
Эль-Саид, Мостафа (англ.)русск. Химия Технологический институт Джорджии For his seminal contributions to our understanding of the electronic and optical properties of nano-materials and to their applications in nano-catalysis and nano-medicine; his humanitarian efforts in promoting the exchange of ideas; and his role in developing the scientific leadership of tomorrow
Клейнрок, Леонард Математические и компьютерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Лос-Анджелесе For his fundamental contributions to the mathematical theory of modern data networks, and for the functional specification of packet switching, which is the foundation of Internet technology. His mentoring of generations of students has led to the commercialization of technologies that have transformed the world
Лефковиц, Роберт Биологические науки Университет Дьюка For his discovery of the seven transmembrane receptors, deemed the largest, most versatile, and most therapeutically accessible receptor signaling system, and for describing the general mechanism of their regulation, influencing all fields of medical practice
О'Мэлли, Берт (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Медицинский колледж Бэйлора (англ.)русск. For his pioneering work on the molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action and hormone receptors and coactivators, which has had a profound impact on our knowledge of steroid hormones in normal development and in diseases, including cancer
Слихтер, Чарльз Пенс (англ.)русск. Физические науки Иллинойский университет в Урбана-Шампейн For establishing nuclear magnetic resonance as a powerful tool to reveal the fundamental molecular properties of liquids and solids. His inspired teaching has led generations of physicists and chemists to develop a host of modern technologies in condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine
Витерби, Эндрю (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Университет Южной Калифорнии For his development of the maximum-likelihood algorithm for convolutional coding, known as the Viterbi algorithm, and for his contributions to Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) wireless technology that transformed the theory and practice of digital communications
Вайнлэнд, Дэвид (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Национальный институт стандартов и технологий For his leadership in developing the science of laser cooling and manipulation of ions, with applications in precise measurements and standards, quantum computing, and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics; his major impact on the international scientific community through the training of scientists; and his outstanding publications
2008 Альдер, Берни (англ.)русск. Физические науки Ливерморская национальная лаборатория For establishing powerful computer methods useful for molecular dynamics simulations, conceiving and executing experimental shock-wave simulations to obtain properties of fluids and solids at very high pressures, and developing Monte Carlo methods for calculating the properties of matter from first principles, all of which contributed to major achievements in the science of condensed matter
Коллинз, Френсис Биологические науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For his visionary contributions to the fields of genetics and genomics through the work of his own laboratory and his leadership of multiple international genomics initiatives, including the Human Genome Project
Фоулер, Джоанна (англ.)русск. Химия Брукхейвенская национальная лаборатория For her pioneering work in chemistry involving the synthesis of medical imaging compounds and her innovative applications of these compounds to human neuroscience, which have significantly advanced our understanding of the human brain and brain diseases including drug addiction
Фукс, Илэйн (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Рокфеллеровский университет For her pioneering use of cell biology and molecular genetics in mice to understand the basis of inherited diseases in humans and her outstanding contributions to our understanding of the biology of skin and its disorders, including her notable investigations of adult skin stem cells, cancers, and genetic syndromes
Ганн, Джеймс Эдвард (англ.)русск. Физические науки Принстонский университет For his brilliant design of many of the most influential telescopes and instruments in astronomy, and in particular for the crucial role those technological marvels played in the creation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which has cataloged 200 million stars, galaxies, and quasars; discovered the most distant known quasars; and probed the epoch of formation of the first stars and galaxies
Калман, Рудольф Инженерные науки Швейцарская высшая техническая школа Цюриха For his fundamental contributions to modern system theory, which provided rigorous mathematical tools for engineering, econometrics, and statistics, and in particular for his invention of the «Kalman filter», which was critical to achieving the Moon landings and creating the Global Positioning System and which has facilitated the use of computers in control and communications technology
Познер, Майкл (англ.)русск. Психология и общественные науки Орегонский университет For his innovative application of technology to the understanding of brain function, his incisive and accurate modeling of functional tasks, and his development of methodological and conceptual tools to help understand the mind and the development of brain networks of attention
Стуббе, Джоанна (англ.)русск. Химия Массачусетский технологический институт For her ground-breaking experiments establishing the mechanisms of ribonucleotide reductases, polyester syntheses, and natural product DNA cleavers � compelling demonstrations of the power of chemical investigations to solve problems in biology
Вентер, Крейг Биологические науки Институт Крейга Вентера (англ.)русск. For his dedication to the advancement of the science of genomics, his contributions to our understanding of its implications for society, and his commitment to the clear communication of information to the scientific community, the public, and policymakers
2009 Ааронов, Якир Физические науки Чепменский университет For his contributions to the foundations of quantum physics and for drawing out unexpected implications of that field ranging from the Aharonov-Bohm effect to the theory of weak measurement
Бенкович, Стивен Джеймс (англ.)русск. Химия Университет штата Пенсильвания For his research contributions in the field of bioorganic chemistry, which have changed our understanding of how enzymes function and advanced the identification of targets and strategies for drug design
Конуэлл, Эстер (англ.)русск. Физические науки Рочестерский университет For her broad contributions to understanding electron and hole transport in semiconducting materials, which helped to enable commercial applications of semiconductor and organic electronic devices, and for extending her analysis to studying the electronic properties of DNA
Фокс, Мэри Энн (англ.)русск. Химия Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For her research contributions in the areas of organic photochemistry and electrochemistry and for enhancing our understanding of excited state and charge-transfer processes with interdisciplinary applications in material science, solar energy conversion, and environmental chemistry
Линдквист, Сьюзан (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For her studies of protein folding, demonstrating that alternative protein conformations and aggregations can have profound and unexpected biological influences, facilitating insights in fields as wide-ranging as human disease, evolution, and biomaterials
Мишкин, Мортимер Психология и общественные науки Национальные институты здравоохранения США For his contributions to understanding the neural basis of perception and memory in primates, notably the delineation of sensory neocortical processing systems especially for vision, audition, and somatic sensation, and the organization of memory systems in the brain
Мамфорд, Дэвид Математические и компьютерные науки Брауновский университет For his contributions to the field of mathematics, which fundamentally changed algebraic geometry, and for connecting mathematics to other disciplines such as computer vision and neurobiology
Прузинер, Стенли Биологические науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Франциско For his discovery of prions, the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and other related neurodegenerative diseases, and his continuing efforts to develop effective methods for detecting and treating prion diseases
Вашингтон, Уоррен (англ.)русск. Физические науки Национальный центр атмосферных исследований (англ.)русск. For his development and use of global climate models to understand climate and explain the role of human activities and natural processes in the Earth’s climate system and for his work to support a diverse science and engineering workforce
Ярив, Амнон (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For foundational contributions to photonics and quantum electronics, including his demonstration of the semiconductor distributed feedback laser that underpins today’s high-speed optical fiber communications
2010 Бартон, Жаклин (англ.)русск. Физические науки Калифорнийский технологический институт For discovery of a new property of the DNA helix, long-range electron transfer, and for showing that electron transfer depends upon stacking of the base pairs and DNA dynamics. Her experiments reveal a strategy for how DNA repair proteins locate DNA lesions and demonstrate a biological role for DNA-mediated charge transfer
Бринстер, Ральф (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Пенсильванский университет For his fundamental contributions to the development and use of transgenic mice. His research has provided experimental foundations and inspiration for progress in germline genetic modification in a range of species, which has generated a revolution in biology, medicine, and agriculture
Шу Чиен (англ.)русск. Инженерные науки Калифорнийский университет в Сан-Диего For pioneering work in cardiovascular physiology and bioengineering, which has had tremendous impact in the fields of microcirculation, blood rheology and mechanotransduction in human health and disease
Джениш, Рудольф (англ.)русск. Биологические науки Массачусетский технологический институт For improving our understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression: the biological mechanisms that affect how genetic information is variably expressed. His work has led to major advances in our understanding of mammalian cloning and embryonic stem cells
Стэнг, Питер Джон (англ.)русск. Химия Университет Юты For his creative contributions to the development of organic supramolecular chemistry and for his outstanding and unique record of public service
Тапиа, Ричард (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Университет Райса For his pioneering and fundamental contributions in optimization theory and numerical analysis and for his dedication and sustained efforts in fostering diversity and excellence in mathematics and science education
Варадхан, Шриниваса (англ.)русск. Математические и компьютерные науки Курантовский институт математических наук For his work in probability theory, especially his work on large deviations from expected random behavior, which has revolutionized this field of study during the second half of the twentieth century and become a cornerstone of both pure and applied probability. The mathematical insights he developed have been applied in diverse fields including quantum field theory, population dynamics, finance, econometrics, and traffic engineering

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