Battle of Crug Mawr


Battle of Crug Mawr

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Crug Mawr
partof=the Norman campaigns in Wales


caption=
date=October, 1136
place=Crug Mawr, two miles from Cardigan
casus=
territory=
result=Decisive Welsh victory
combatant1=Welsh forces from Gwynedd and Deheubarth
combatant2=Norman forces from all the South Wales lordships
commander1=Owain Gwynedd
commander2=Robert fitz Martin
strength1=Several thousand
strength2=Several thousand
casualties1=Said to be light
casualties2=3,000 killed

The Battle of Crug Mawr took place in September or October 1136, as part of a struggle for control of Ceredigion which had been captured by the Normans.

A Welsh revolt against Norman rule had begun in south Wales, where on 1 January 1136 the Welsh won a victory over the local Norman forces between Loughor and Swansea, killing about 500 of their opponents. Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, the Norman lord of Ceredigion, had been away from his lordship in the early part of the year. Returning to the borders of Wales in April, he ignored warnings of the danger and pressed on towards Ceredigion with a small force. He had not gone far when he was ambushed and killed by the men of Iorwerth ab Owain, grandson of Caradog ap Gruffydd (the penultimate prince of Gwent).

The news of Richard's death led to an invasion by the forces of Gwynedd, led by Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, sons of the king of Gwynedd, Gruffydd ap Cynan. They captured a number of castles in northern Ceredigion before returning home to dispose of the plunder. Around Michaelmas they again invaded Ceredigion and made an alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth. The combined forces headed for Cardigan. These troops were said to include hundreds of armoured horsemen, a style of warfare which the Welsh had learnt from the Normans.

The battle

At Crug Mawr, two miles outside Cardigan, the Welsh forces were confronted by Norman troops drawn from all the lordships of South Wales. The Normans were led by Robert fitz Martin, lord of Cemais; Robert fitz Stephen, constable of Cardigan Castle; and William and Maurice fitz Gerald, uncles of Gerald of Windsor.

After some hard fighting, the Norman forces were put to flight and pursued as far as the River Teifi. Many of the fugitives tried to cross the bridge, which broke under the weight, with hundreds said to have drowned, clogging the river with the bodies of men and horses. Others fled to the town of Cardigan, which however was taken and burned by the Welsh though Robert fitz Martin successfully managed to defend and hold the castle; it was the only one to remain in Norman hands at the end of the rebellion.

Aftermath

Ceredigion, which had been part of Deheubarth before the Normans had conquered it, was now annexed by Gwynedd as the more powerful member of the coalition. Years later, Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth was able to win it back.

The battle was a significant setback to Norman expansion in Wales. Owain Gwynedd became king of Gwynedd on the death of his father the following year, and further expanded the borders of the kingdom. In Deheubarth, Gruffydd ap Rhys died in uncertain circumstances in 1137, and this enabled the Normans to recover their position in the south.

References

John Edward Lloyd (1911) "A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest" (Longmans, Green & Co.)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Crug — is a Welsh word meaning hillock, cairn or barrow, and may refer to: Bryn crug, Wales Crug Hywel Battle of Crug Mawr See also Krug (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an …   Wikipedia

  • Kingdom of Gwynedd — Infobox Former Country native name = Teyrnas Gwynedd conventional long name = Kingdom of GwyneddRef|1 common name = Gwynedd |continent = Europe region = British Isles country = Wales era = Middle Ages government type = Monarchy |event start =… …   Wikipedia

  • Gwynedd in the High Middle Ages — is a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (AD 1000 ndash;1300). The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages. Gwynedd is located in the north of… …   Wikipedia

  • Rhys ap Gruffydd — (1132 ndash; 28 April 1197) was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales. He is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys , but this title may not have been used in his lifetime. [Turvey pp. 91–2] He usually used the …   Wikipedia

  • History of Wales — The country of Wales, or Cymru in Welsh, has been inhabited by modern humans for at least 29,000 years, though continuous human habitation dates from the period after the end of the last Ice age, around 9,000 BC. Wales has many remains from the… …   Wikipedia

  • List of battles (geographic) — This list of battles is organized geographically, by country in its present territory. For other lists of battles, see List of battles. Angola* Battle of Mbwila 1665 * Battle of Quifangondo 1975 * Battle of Cassinga 1978 * Battle of Cuito… …   Wikipedia

  • List of battles 601–1400 — List of battles: before 601 601 1400 1401 1800 1801 1900 1901 2000 2001 current 7th century * 603 Battle of Degsastan Northumbrian king Aethelfrith defeats Scots under Áedán mac Gabráin * 612 ** Battle of Yodong fortress Korean Goguryeo defeat… …   Wikipedia

  • Deheubarth — Kingdom of Deheubarth Teyrnas Deheubarth ←   …   Wikipedia

  • Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd — (Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffydd) (b.c. 1097, d. 1136) was Princess consort of Deheubarth in Wales, and the daughter of Gruffydd ap Cynan (1055 1137), prince of Gwynedd, and a member of the princely Aberffraw family of Gwynedd. Gwenllain was the… …   Wikipedia

  • 12th century in Wales — This article is about the particular significance of the century 1100 1199 to Wales and its people. Events1102 *Gerald de Windsor becomes Constable of Pembroke Castle.1109 *Nest ferch Rhys is abducted from Cilgerran Castle by Owain ap… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.