Приложение. Важнейшие единицы тепловых величин


Приложение. Важнейшие единицы тепловых величин
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|                                 |                            |                     | Обозначения                               |                                   |---------------------------|
| Величина                 | Наименование     | Размерность |----------------------------------------------------| Содержит единиц СИ  |--------------------------|
|                                 |                            |                     | русское            | международное |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Термодинамическая | кельвин              | θ                   | К (°К)               | K                       |                                   |                          |
| температура            |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| (температура)          |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Температура            | градус Цельсия   | θ                   | °С                    | °С                     t°=TT0, где t°—          |                          |
| Цельсия по              |                            |                     |                         |                          | температура              |                          |
| практической           |                            |                     |                         |                          | Цельсия,                    |                          |
| температурной         |                            |                     |                         |                          Т — температура       |                          |
| шкале                      |                            |                     |                         |                          | Кельвина,                  |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          T0 = 273,15 К (по        |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          | размерам градус        |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          | Цельсия равен           |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          | кельвину)                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Температурный        кельвин в          | θ1                 | К1                    | K1                     |                                   |                          |
| коэффициент           минус первой    |                     |                         |                          |                                   |---------------------------|
| (линейного               степени              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| расширения,            |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| объемного                |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| расширения             |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| давления)                |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | градус Цельсия   |                     | °C1                  | °C1                   | 1°C1 = 1 К1                |                          |
|                                 | в минус первой    |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 | степени               |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Температурный        кельвин на        | L1θ               | К/м                  | K/m                   |                                   |                          |
| градиент                  метр                   |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | градус Цельсия   |                     | °C/м                 | °C/m                  | 1°C/м = 1 К/м             |                          |
|                                 | на метр                |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Количество              джоуль               | L2MT2           | Дж                   | J                       |                                   |                          |
| теплоты, энтальпия, |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| внутренняя энергия, | калория*              |                     кал                   | cal                     | 1кал = 4,187 Дж         |                          |
| теплота химической |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| реакции, теплота      | килокалория*       |                     ккал                 | kcal                   | 1ккал = 4,187∙103 Дж  |                          |
| фазового                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| превращения           | калория               |                     кал (термох.)    | calth                   | 1 кал (термох.) =        |                          |
| (скрытая теплота)     | термохимическая |                     |                         |                          | 4,184 Дж                    |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Удельное                 джоуль на         | L2T2             | Дж/кг               | J/kg                   |                                   |                          |
| количество               | килограмм         |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| теплоты, удельная   |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| энтальпия,               |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| удельная                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| внутренняя энергия, | калория на           |                     кал/г                | cal/g                  | 1 кал/г = 4,187∙103      |                          |
| удельная                 | грамм*                 |                     |                         |                          | Дж/кг                         |                          |
| внутренняя теплота  |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| химической              |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| реакции, удельная   |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| теплота фазового     | килокалория на    |                     ккал/кг             | kcal/kg              | 1 ккал/кг = 4,187∙103   |                          |
| превращения           | килограмм*          |                     |                         |                          | Дж/кг                         |                          |
| (удельная скрытая   |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| теплота)                   |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |                            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Теплоемкость          джоуль на         | L2MT2θ1       | Дж/К                | J/K                    |                                   |                          |
| системы; энтропия   кельвин              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| системы                   |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | джоуль на            |                     | Дж/°С               | J/°C                   | 1 Дж/°С = 1 Дж/К        |                          |
|                                 | градус Цельсия   |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | калория на           |                     кал/град           | cal/grad             | 1 кал/град = 4,187      |                          |
|                                 | градус*                |                     |                         |                          | Дж/К                          |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Удельная                 Джоуль на         | L2T2θ1          | Дж/(кг∙К)          | J/(kg∙K)             |                                   |                          |
| теплоемкость           килограмм-        |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| системы, удельная  кельвин              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| энтропия, удельная  |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| газовая постоянная  | калория на           |                     кал/(гград)      | cal/(g∙grad)        | 1 кал/(гград) =           |                          |
|                                 | грамм-градус*      |                     |                         |                          | 4,187∙103 Дж/(кг∙К)     |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Тепловой поток        ватт                    | L2MT3           | Вт (вт)              | W                      |                                   |                          |
| (мощность               |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| теплового потока)     | калория в             |                     кал/сек             | cal/s                  |                                   |                          |
|                                 | секунду*              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | килокалория в      |                     ккал/час           | kcal/h                | 1 ккал/час = 1,163 Вт  |                          |
|                                 | час*                     |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Поверхностная         | ватт на               | MT3              | Вт/м2               | W/m2                 |                                   |                          |
| плотность                квадратный       |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| теплового потока      | метр                   |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | калория на           |                     кал/(см2сек)    | cal/(cm2∙s)         | 1 кал/(см2сек) =        |                          |
|                                 | квадратный          |                     |                         |                          | 4,187∙104Вт/м2           |                          |
|                                 | сантметр-            |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 | секунду*              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | килокалория на    |                     ккал/(м2∙час)    | kcal/(m2∙h)         | 1 ккал/(м2час) =        |                          |
|                                 | квадратный          |                     |                         |                          | 1,163 Вт/м2                |                          |
|                                 | метр-час*             |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Объемная                ватт на               | L1MT3          | Вт/м3               | W/m3                 |                                   |                          |
| плотность                кубический        |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| теплового потока      | метр                   |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | калория на           |                     кал/(см3сек)    | cal/(cm3∙s)         | 1 кал/(см3сек) =        |                          |
|                                 | кубический          |                     |                         |                          | 4,187∙104 Вт/м3          |                          |
|                                 | сантиметр-           |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 | секунду*              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | килокалория на    |                     ккал/(м3час)    | kcal/(h∙m3)         | 1 ккал/3час) =        |                          |
|                                 | кубический метр- |                      |                         |                          | 1,163 Вт/м3                |                          |
|                                 | час*                     |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Коэффициент          ватт на               | MT3θ1          | Вт/(м2∙К)          | W/(m2∙K)           |                                   |                          |
| теплоотдачи             | квадратный       |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| (теплообмена);         метр-кельвин    |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
| коэффициент           |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| теплопередачи         | калория на           |                     кал/(см2∙°С)      | cal/(cm2∙°С)       | 1 кал/(см2∙°С) =          |                          |
|                                 | квадратный          |                     |                         |                          | 4,187∙102 Вт/(м2∙К)     |                          |
|                                 | сантиметр-           |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 | градус Цельсия*  |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Теплопроводность   ватт на метр-    | LMT3θ1        | Вт/(м∙К)           | W/(m∙K)             |                                   |                          |
|                                 | кельвин              |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | калория в             |                     кал/(сексм∙°С) | cal/(s∙cm∙°С)     | 1 кал/(сексм∙°С) =     |                          |
|                                 | секунду на           |                     |                         |                          | 418,68 Вт/(м∙К)           |                          |
|                                 | сантиметр-           |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 | градус Цельсия*  |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
|                                 |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                                 | килокалория в      |                     ккал/(часм∙°С) | kcal/(h∙m∙°С)     | 1 ккал/(часм∙°С)        |                          |
|                                 | час на метр-        |                     |                         |                          | =1,163 Вт/(м∙К)          |                          |
|                                 | градус Цельсия*  |                     |                         |                          |                                   |                          |
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1. Малая медицинская энциклопедия. — М.: Медицинская энциклопедия. 1991—96 гг. 2. Первая медицинская помощь. — М.: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 1994 г. 3. Энциклопедический словарь медицинских терминов. — М.: Советская энциклопедия. — 1982—1984 гг.

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