Рассеянных элементов руды это:

Рассеянных элементов руды
        природные минеральные образования, содержащие Рассеянные элементы в таких соединениях и концентрациях, при которых целесообразно их извлечение при современном развитии технологии и экономики. Они извлекаются главным образом попутно из руд др. металлов и полезных ископаемых при комплексной их переработке. Основные рассеянные элементы, их геохимические аналоги, минералы-концентраторы и минеральные образования, которые служат важнейшими источниками их промышленного получения, приведены в таблице. Для большинства рассеянных элементов существует несколько типов руд, из которых они могут быть извлечены. Например, в Великобритании германий извлекается из коксующихся углей, в Японии — из германийсодержащих лигнитов, в США — из свинцово-цинковых руд долины Миссисипи, в Бельгии — из собственно германиевых руд месторождения Кипуши (Республика Заир). В СССР производство ванадия основано на попутном его извлечении из титаномагнетитов Урала, в США — из ураноносных карнотитовых песчаников района Амбросия-Лейк в штате Колорадо (см. Колорадо плато), в Перу — из собственно ванадиевых руд в асфальтитах (Минас-Рагра), в Намибии и Замбии — из зоны окисления полиметаллических (деклуазитовые и ванадинитовые руды) месторождений Берг-Аукас, Цумеб, Абенаб и др.
         Получение рассеянных элементов из комплексных руд определяется масштабами добычи основных элементов, существующей потребностью в рассеянных элементах и наличием экономически рентабельной технологии их извлечения. Производство рассеянных элементов в капиталистических странах в 1969—72 составляло (в тыс. т): ванадия 13—16; кадмия 10—15; селена 1—1,2; теллура 0,16—0,18; германия 0,009—0,11; индия 0,005—0,006; таллия 0,0013—0,0014; рения — 0,0004.
         Лит.: Геохимия, минералогия и генетические типы месторождений редких элементов, т. 1—2, М., 1964; Магакьян И. Г., Редкие, рассеянные и редкоземельные элементы, Ep., 1971; Рудные месторождения СССР, т, 1—3, М., 1974.
         Л. И. Гинзбург.
        
         Основные рассеянные элементы и их руды
        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        | Рассеянный        | Распространён-     | Условия накопления и          | Минералы-               | Промышленное           |
        | элемент              | ный                        | нахождения                         | концентраторы         | получение                  |
        |                           | геохимический       |                                             |                                 |                                   |
        |                           | аналог                   |                                             |                                 |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Рубидий Rb+       | Калий К+                | Пегматиты (поздние стадии) | Микроклин               | Попутно из литиевых  |
        |                           |                              | в калиевых и цезиевых         |---------------------------------| слюд типа                  |
        |                           |                              | минералах                           | Rb-мусковит             | лепидолита, а также   |
        |                           |                              |                                             |---------------------------------| поллуцита при            |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Лепидолит               | переработке их на Li и |
        |                           |                              |                                             |---------------------------------| Cs                              |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Поллуцит                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Грейзены                             | Циннвальдит            | Попутно из литиевых  |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | слюд                          |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Осадочные месторождения  | Сильвин                   | Попутно из калийных  |
        |                           |                              | калийных солей                    |---------------------------------| солей                         |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Карналлит                |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Кадмий Cd2+       | Цинк Zn2+               | Полиметаллические             | Сфалерит                | Попутно из                 |
        |                           |                              | месторождения, особенно    |                                 | полиметалличес-        |
        |                           |                              | скарнового типа                   |                                 | ких и медно-цинковых |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------| колчеданных              |
        |                           |                              | Медно-цинковые                  | Сфалерит                | месторождений          |
        |                           |                              | колчеданные                        |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           |                              | Зона окисления                    | Гринокит CdS           |                                   |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллических              | Отавит CdCO3         |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождений                    |                                 |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Галлий Ga3+        | Алюминий Al3+      | Нефелиновые сиениты         | Нефелин                  | В основном попутно   |
        |                           |                              |---------------------------------------------| Содалит                   | при производстве       |
        |                           |                              | Полиметаллические и           | Гакманит                  | алюминия из бокситов |
        |                           |                              | медно-полиметаллические   | Сфалерит                |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения,                   | Галдит CuGaS2        |                                   |
        |                           |                              | залегающие в карбонатных  |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | породах                               |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           |                              | Бокситы                               | Бемит                      |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Гидраргиллит           |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Диаспор                   |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Таллий Tl+, Tl3+  | Калий К                  | Пегматиты (поздние стадии) | Лепидолит               | В основном попутно   |
        |                           |                              | в калиевых минералах,        |                                 | при переработке руд   |
        |                           |                              | обогащенных Rb                  |                                 | полиметалличес-        |
        |                           |--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| ких месторождений     |
        |                           | + Рубидий Rb+       | Колчеданно-                         | Галенит                    |                                   |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллические и           |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | стратиформные                   |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллические              |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           | Свинец Pb2+          | Низкотемпературные            | Галенит                    |                                   |
        |                           |                              | гидротермальные                 | Геокронит Pb5(Sb,    |                                   |
        |                           |                              | сульфидные                        | As)2 S8                     |                                   |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллические и           | Менегинит CuPb13    |                                   |
        |                           |                              | сурьмяно-ртутные                | Sb7S24                      |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | Пирит                       |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Марказит                 |                                   |
        |                           |--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           |                              | Низкотемпературные            | Лорандит TIAsS2      |                                   |
        |                           |                              | мышьяковые                        | Врбаит TI (As,          |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | Sb)3S5                      |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Индий In3+           | Цинк Zn2+               | Богатые Fe сфалериты        | Сфалерит                | Попутно из                 |
        |                           |                              | высокотемпературных          |                                 | полиметаллических и  |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллических              |                                 | олово-                        |
        |                           |                              | месторождений                    |                                 | полиметалличес-        |
        |                           |--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| ких месторождений     |
        |                           | Олово Sn4+            | Касситерит-сульфидные      | Сфалерит                |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения (сфалерит   | Рокезит CulnS2         |                                   |
        |                           |                              | — халькопирит —                | Индит Feln2S4          |                                   |
        |                           |                              | пирротиновые) с                   |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | деревянистым оловом          |                                 |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Скандий Sc2+      | Редкоземельные    | Редкоземельные                  | Самарскит               | Попутно при               |
        |                           | элементы               | пегматиты                            | Эвксенит Y (Nb, Ti,   | переработке TR-         |
        |                           | иттриевой группы   |                                             | Ta)2О6                      | концентратов              |
        |                           | TR3+Y                     |                                             | Гадолинит                |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Ортит                       |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             |---------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              |                                             | Тортвейтит Sc [Si2O | Собственно                |
        |                           |                              |                                             | 7]                             | скандиевые                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | тортвейтитовые руды  |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Гидротермальные кварц-      | Давидит                   | Попутно при               |
        |                           |                              | ильменит-давидитовые        |                                 | переработке               |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    |                                 | концентратов              |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | давидита на уран       |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           | Железо Fe2+           | Грейзеновые касситерит-     | Вольфрамит            | Попутно при               |
        |                           | Магний Mg2+          | вольфрамитовые                 | Касситерит              | переработке               |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | Берилл                     | касситерит-                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | вольфрамитовых и     |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | вольфрамитовых        |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | концентратов              |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           | Цирконий Zr4+        | Россыпи                              | Циркон                     | Попутно при               |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Малакон                   | переработке               |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | цирконовых                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | концентратов              |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           | Алюминий Al3+      | Месторождения бокситов     | Минералы                | Попутно из красных    |
        |                           |                              |                                             | алюминия                | шламов при                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | производстве             |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | алюминия                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Германий Ge4+  | Кремний Si4+          | Полиметаллические             | Сфалерит                | Попутно из некоторых |
        | Ge2+                    |                              | месторождения,                   |                                 | полиметаллических    |
        |                           |                              | залегающие в карбонатных  |                                 | месторождений          |
        |                           |                              | породах                               |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           | Цинк Zn2+               | Медно-германиевые             | Германит Cu3(Ge,    | Германит-                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | Fe) S4                      | реньеритовые руды    |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Реньерит Сuз (Fe,     | типа месторождений   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Ge) S4                      | Цумеб и Кипуши         |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           | Железа Fe2+           | Коксующиеся угли               |                                 | Извлекается из           |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | надсмольных вод при |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | коксовании углей        |
        |                           |-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                |------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Бурые угли и лигниты           |                                 | Золы энергетических  |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | углей                          |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           |                              | Осадочно-                            | Магнетит                  | Шлаки,                       |
        |                           |                              | метаморфические                |                                 | образующиеся при     |
        |                           |                              | железные руды                    |                                 | плавке железных руд  |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Гафний Hf4+        | Цирконий Zr4+        | Пегматиты (поздние             | Циртолит                 | Попутно при               |
        |                           |                              | стадии)                                | Альвит                     | переработке               |
        |                           |                              | Альбитизированные             | Малакон                   | минералов группы      |
        |                           |                              | рибекитовые щелочные        |                                 | циркона                      |
        |                           |                              | граниты и метасоматиты      |                                 |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Ванадий V5+        | Титан Ti4+              | Титаномагнетитовые            | Титаномагнетит        | Попутно при               |
        |                           | Фосфор P5+           | магматические                     | Магнетит                  | переработке               |
        |                           |                              | месторождения в                 |                                 | титаномагниевых руд  |
        |                           |                              | пироксенитах и                    |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | перидотитах, ильменит-       |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | магнетитовые в габбро и      |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | анортизитах                         |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
        |                           | Железо Fe3+           | Зоны окисления                   | Деклуазит                | Собственно                |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллических              | (Zn, Cu) Pb [VO4       | ванадиевые                |
        |                           |                              | месторождений                    | ](OH)                        | месторождения          |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Ванадинит               |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Pb5[VO4]3Cl              |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Осадочные карнотитовые и  | Карнотит                  | Попутно при               |
        |                           |                              | роскоэлитовые                     | K2(UO2)2[VO4]2·3H2O | переработке               |
        |                           |                              | месторождения (песчаники)  | Расскоэлит              | урановых руд             |
        |                           |                              |                                             | KV2[AlSi3O10](OH,     |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | F)2                           |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Фосфориты                          | Зола нефти              | Попутно из                 |
        |                           |                              | Нефтяные месторождения   | Патронит VS4           | фосфоритов               |
        |                           |                              | и асфальтиты                      |                                 | Попутно из нефти       |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | Собственно                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | ванадиевые                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | месторождения в        |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | асфальтитах              |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Рений Re6+          | Молибден Mo6+      | Гидротермальные медно-     | Молибденит             | Попутно из                 |
        |                           |                              | молибденовые, урано-          |                                 | молибденовых руд     |
        |                           |                              | молибденовые и                   |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | молибденовые                     |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Медистые песчаники            | Джезказганит           | Попутно из медных     |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Cu (Mo, Re) S4          | руд                             |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           |                              | Медистые сланцы                | Молибденит             |                                   |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Селен Se2—         | Сера S2—               | Медно-никелевые                 | Пирротин                 | Попутно из руд           |
        |                           |                              | сульфидные                        | Халькопирит            | медно-никелевых,       |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | Пентландит              | медно-                        |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Кубанит                   | молибденовых,           |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | медноколчедан-          |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | ных и колчеданно-      |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | полиметаллических    |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | месторождений          |
        |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        | Теллур Te2—        |                              | Медно-молибденовые          | Молибденит             |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           |                              | Медноколчеданные              | Пирит                       |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | Халькопирит            |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | Галенит                    |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------|                                   |
        |                           |                              | Полиметаллические и           | Галенит                    |                                   |
        |                           |                              | колчеданно-                         |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | полиметаллические              |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    |                                 |                                   |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Селенидные                         | Клаусталит PbSe и   | Собственно                |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | др. селениды           | селенидные                |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | месторождения типа   |
        |                           |                              |                                             |                                 | Пакахака (Боливия)    |
        |                           |                              |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
        |                           |                              | Золото-теллуровые              | Самородный            | Попутно из руд           |
        |                           |                              | месторождения                    | теллур, теллуриды   | золота                        |
        |                           |                              |                                             | золота, серебра,      |                                   |
        |                           |                              |                                             | висмута                   |                                   |
        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        

Большая советская энциклопедия. — М.: Советская энциклопедия. 1969—1978.

Смотреть что такое "Рассеянных элементов руды" в других словарях:

  • Рассеянных элементов руды —         (a. ores of trace elements; н. Erze der Spurenelemente; ф. minerais dissemines; и. minerales de elementos de traza) природные минеральные образования, содержащие рассеянные элементы в концентрациях, при к рых экономически целесообразно их …   Геологическая энциклопедия

  • РАССЕЯННЫХ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ РУДЫ — содержат рассеянные элементы в промышленных концентрациях. Извлекаются главным образом попутно при комплексной переработке полезных ископаемых …   Большой Энциклопедический словарь

  • рассеянных элементов руды — содержат рассеянные элементы в промышленных концентрациях. Извлекаются главным образом попутно при комплексной переработке полезных ископаемых. * * * РАССЕЯННЫХ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ РУДЫ РАССЕЯННЫХ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ РУДЫ, содержат рассеянные элементы (см.… …   Энциклопедический словарь

  • РАССЕЯННЫХ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ РУДЫ — содержат рассеянные элементы в пром. концентрациях. Извлекаются гл. обр. попутно при комплексной переработке полезных ископаемых …   Естествознание. Энциклопедический словарь

  • Германийсодержащие руды —         см. Рассеянных элементов руды. Горная энциклопедия. М.: Советская энциклопедия. Под редакцией Е. А. Козловского. 1984 1991 …   Геологическая энциклопедия

  • Таллийсодержащие руды —         см. Рассеянных элементов руды. Горная энциклопедия. М.: Советская энциклопедия. Под редакцией Е. А. Козловского. 1984 1991 …   Геологическая энциклопедия

  • Теллурсодержащие руды —         см. Рассеянных элементов руды. Горная энциклопедия. М.: Советская энциклопедия. Под редакцией Е. А. Козловского. 1984 1991 …   Геологическая энциклопедия

  • Медные руды —         природные минеральные образования, содержание меди в которых достаточно для экономически целесообразной добычи этого металла. Из 170 известных медьсодержащих минералов 17 используются в промышленных масштабах: Медь самородная Cu; Борнит… …   Большая советская энциклопедия

  • Состав кусинской руды и продуктов ее обогащения, % — Материалы SiO2 FeO Fe (общ.) TiO2 Cr2O3 P2O5 V2O5 Руда …   Химический справочник

  • Редкометалльные руды —         (a. rare metal ores; н. Erze der seltenen Metalle; ф. minerais de metaux rares; и. minerales de metales raros, menas de metales raros) природные минеральные образования, содержащие редкие элементы (РЭ) в виде самостоят. минералов или… …   Геологическая энциклопедия


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